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Azadirachta indica

Ɛfi Wikipedia
Azadirachta indica
taxon
subclass ofuseful plant Sesa
has usevegetable Sesa
short nameA. indica Sesa
taxon nameAzadirachta indica Sesa
taxon rankspecies Sesa
parent taxonAzadirachta Sesa
taxon common nameNeem Tree, neem, 印楝 Sesa
IUCN conservation statusLeast Concern Sesa
invasive toGhana Sesa
maintained by WikiProjectWikiProject Invasion Biology Sesa
taxon rangeTibet Autonomous Region Sesa
GRIN URLhttps://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=6161 Sesa

Azadirachta indica, a wɔtaa frɛ no neem, margosa, nimtree anaa Indian lilac,[1] yɛ dua a ɛwɔ mahogany abusua Meliaceae mu. Ɛyɛ nnɔbae ahorow mmienu a ɛwɔ Azadirachta abusua mu no mu baako. Ɛfi India asasepɔn no ne Asia Anafo fam apuei fam mmeae bi, nanso wɔdɔɔso wɔ wiase nyinaa wɔ mmeae a ewim yɛ hyew na ewim yɛ nwini. Ne nnuaba ne ne aba na wonya neem ngo fi mu. Nim yɛ Hindustani asɛmfua a efi Sanskrit nimba mu.[2][3][4]

Nkyerɛkyerɛmu[sesa]

Ɛho hia sɛ wɔtwe adwene si nsɛm afoforo so wɔ ɔfa yi mu na ama wɔagye ato mu. (May 2019) Margosa yɛ dua a ɛrenyin ntɛmntɛm a ne tenten betumi adu mita 15 - 20 (49 – 66 ft), na ɛntaa nyɛ tenten sɛ 35 –40 m (115 –131 ft). Ɛyɛ nhwiren a ɛtaa tɔ, na ne nhaban pii gu wɔ awɔw bere mu. N'abaa no trɛw na ɛtrɛw. N'ahenkyɛ a ɛyɛ den no yɛ kɔkɔɔ, na ne tɛtrɛtɛ betumi adu mita 20. N'afa a ɛne no bɔ abira no tenten yɛ 20 – 40 cm (8 – 16 in), na nkrataa a ɛyɛ ahabammono tenten bɛyɛ 3 - icm (1+1⁄4 - 3+1⁄4 in) na ɛwɔ ho.[5] Mpɛn pii no, na nhomawa a ɛka yare no ho nsɛm no nni hɔ. Nnua a ɛwɔ so no yɛ nketewa. Nhwiren a ɛyɛ fitaa a ɛyɛ huam no gu hɔ ma ɛtrɛw bɛyɛ sɛ mita 25. Nhwiren no gu nhwiren 250 kosi 300. Nhwiren biara tenten yɛ mm. 5 ⁇ 6 na ne tɛtrɛtɛ yɛ mm. 8 - 11 . Nkorabata, nhwiren a ɛsono wɔn bɔbea ne nhwiren a ɛsono mmarima bɔbea nyinaa wɔ dua koro no ara so. Aba no yɛ smooth (glabrous), olive-like drupe a ɛsono ne su fi elongate oval to almost roundish, na sɛ abere a ne kɛse yɛ 14 – 28 mm (1⁄2 -1+1⁄8 in) by 10 –15 mm (3⁄8 - 5⁄8 in). Aba no ho nhwi (exocarp) yɛ nketenkete, na ne mu a ɛyɛ dɛ dɛ dɛ (mesocarp) no yɛ fitaa kɔkɔɔ kɔkɔɔ, na ɛyɛ nhwi pii. Mezocarp no yɛ 3 – 5 mm (1⁄8 - 1⁄4 inch). Aba no mu a ɛyɛ fitaa a emu yɛ den no ka aba biako, na ɛntaa nyɛ abien, anaa abiɛsa a ɛyɛ tenten a n'aba no yɛ kɔkɔɔ.

Margosa dua no te sɛ ne busuani, chinaberry anaa bakain, Melia azedarach,[6] a wobetumi de afrafra mu. Melia azedarach nso wɔ nnuaba nketenkete a n'ano yɛ nsɔe ne nnuaba a ɛte saa. Nsonsonoe biako ne sɛ margosa nhaban no wɔ nhwiren nanso chinaberry nhaban no wɔ nhwiren abien ne abiɛsa.

Nhyehyɛe[sesa]

Adrien-Henri de Jussieu na odii kan tintim edin Azadirachta indica no wɔ afe 1830 mu.[7] Wɔ afe 1753 mu no, Carl Linnaeus kaa nnua ahorow abien ho asɛm, Melia azedarach ne Melia azadirachta.[8] De Jussieu susuw sɛ Melia azadirachta yɛ soronko koraa fi Melia azedarach ho ma wɔde no hyɛ abusua foforo bi mu.[9] Linnaeus de ne din 'azedarach' dii dwuma wɔ ne nnua ahorow no nyinaa ho,[8] a efi French kasa 'azédarac' mu, na ɛno nso fi Persia kasa 'āzād dirakht' (ازادرخت), a ɛkyerɛ 'free or noble tree' mu. Dua no Persian din, azad darakhat-e-hind, kyerɛ sɛ 'India dua a w'atumi atew ho, kyerɛ sɛ enni yare ne nkoekoemmoa haw biara.

Nkyekyɛmu[sesa]

Wɔkyerɛ sɛ Azadirachta indica fi India mantam ne Bangladesh wɔ India asasepɔn no so ne Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand ne Vietnam wɔ Indochina. Wɔagye no atrɛw wɔ mmeae afoforo wɔ tropical ne subtropical mmeae, fi South America kɔsi Indonesia.

Abɔde a nkwa wom[sesa]

Wonim margosa dua no sɛ ɛko tia ɔpɛ. Mpɛn pii no, ɛwo wɔ mmeae a osu tɔ kɛse wɔ hɔ, na afe biara osu tɔ bɛyɛ mm 400 -1,200. Ebetumi anyin wɔ mmeae a nsu a ɛtɔ afe biara no nnu mm 400 mu, nanso saa bere no, nea ehia paa ne asase ase nsu. Margosa betumi anyin wɔ asase ahorow pii so, nanso ɛyɛ yiye wɔ asase a emu dɔ a nsu nni mu yiye so. Ɛyɛ nnua a ɛwo wɔ tropical ne subtropical mu, na ɛwɔ afe biara mu no, ne hyew yɛ 21 - 32 °C (70 - 90 °F). Otumi gyina ɔhyew a ano yɛ den anaa nea ano yɛ den paa ano, na ɔmpɛ sɛ ɔhyew a ano yɛ den sen 5 °C (41 °F) ba. Margosa yɛ nnua kakraa bi a ɛma sunsuma a ɛwowɔ mmeae a ɔpɛ taa si, te sɛ India ne Pakistan mpoano nkuraase a ɛwowɔ anafo fam no mu biako. Nnua no ani nnye nsu no ho koraa, na sɛ nsu no yɛ kakra mpo a, ɛma wɔn ho tɔ wɔn. Wɔ India ne nsase a ewim yɛ hyew a Indiafo a wɔatu akɔtra hɔ no adu hɔ no, ɛyɛ ade a wɔtaa hu sɛ wɔde margosa nnua yɛ ade wɔ mmɔnten so, asɔredan, sukuu ahorow ne ɔman adan a ɛtete saa ho, anaa nnipa dodow no ara adiwo. Wɔ mmeae a osu tɔ kɛse no, wodua nnua no wɔ asase kɛse so.

Nwura a ɛyɛ nwura[sesa]

Wɔkyerɛ sɛ Margosa yɛ nwura bɔne wɔ mmeae pii, a ebi ne Middle East, Afrika a ɛwɔ Sahara Anafo fam no fa kɛse no ara a Afrika Atɔe fam ne India Po aman ka ho, ne Australia afa bi. Ɛwɔ mu no, ɛtumi tena ase wɔ baabi a ne tebea te sɛ ne deɛ mu, nanso wɔntaa nhwehwɛ sɛ ɛyɛ nwura.Wɔ April 2015 mu no, wɔkaa A. indica ho asɛm sɛ ɛyɛ nwura a ɛwɔ class B ne C wɔ Northern Territory, Australia, a ɛkyerɛ sɛ ɛsɛ sɛ wɔhwɛ ma enyin na ɛtrɛw, na wɔmma kwan sɛ wɔde afifide anaa propagules ba Northern Territory. Mmara mma kwan sɛ obi bɛtɔ nnua anaa aba no, atɔn anaa ɔde bɛkɔ baabi foforo. N'asɛm a wɔkaa sɛ ɛyɛ nwura no bae sɛ mmuaeɛ maa n'asumansɛm wɔ "Top End" no mu.[10] Bere a wɔde A. indica baa Australia no, ɛbɛyɛ sɛ wɔ afe 1940 mfe no mu no, wodii kan duaa no wɔ Northern Territory de maa anantwi no sunsum. Wɔ 1960 ne 1980 mfe no mu no, wosii nnua a na wɔsɔ hwɛ wɔ Darwin, Queensland, ne Western Australia, nanso Australia margosa adwuma no antumi anyɛ yiye. Seesei dua no atrɛw akɔ savanna, titiriw nsu a ɛbɛn hɔ, na nnipa a wɔabɛyɛ ne dea wɔ mmeae pii.[11]

Nnua a wɔde yɛ nnuru[sesa]

Margosa aba, aba, ahaban, ntini, ne ne dua mu ntini wɔ nnɔbae mu nnuru ahorow, a emu bi wɔ hɔ a wodii kan hui wɔ azadirachta aba mu, te sɛ azadirachtin a wɔde sii hɔ wɔ afe 1960 mu sɛ mmoawa a wɔko tia mmoawa, nea ɛboa ma mmoawa nyin, ne mmoawammoawa. Azadirachtin a wonya fi aba a wogu 2 kg mu no bɛyɛ 5 g.Adaka azadirachtin ne limonoid ahorow a ɛne no wɔ abusuabɔ no, aba ngo no wɔ glycerides, polyphenols ahorow, nimbolide, triterpenes, ne beta-sitosterol.[12] Ngo no yɛ kɔkɔɔ, ne hua te sɛ atoko na emu 2% yɛ limonoid compounds.[13] N'ahaban no mu no, quercetin, catechins, carotenes, ne vitamin C.

Sɛnea wɔde di dwuma[sesa]

Margosa nhaban no, wɔoma so wɔ India na wɔde gu nkongua mu na mmoawa annidi ntade no, na wɔde gu nkongua mu nso a wɔkora ɛmo ne awi wɔ hɔ.[14] Wɔde nhwiren yi di dwuma wɔ India afahyɛ ahorow te sɛ Ugadi mu nso. Hwɛ ase hɔ: #Association with Hindu festivals in India.

Aduan[sesa]

Wodi margosa dua no nhwiren ne nhwiren a ɛyɛ mmerɛw no sɛ afumduan wɔ India. Wɔnoa nnuan bi a ɛte sɛ sopa a wɔfrɛ no vēppam pū cāṟu (வேப்பம் பூ சாறு) wɔ Tamil kasa mu (a wɔkyerɛ ase sɛ "margosa nhwiren rasam") a wɔde neem nhwiren yɛ no wɔ Tamil Nadu. Wɔ Bengal no, wɔde margosa nkuku nketewa no tɔ ngo mu ne aubergine (brinjal) nketenkete. Wɔfrɛ no nim bēgun bhājā (নিম বেগুন ভাজা) na ɛyɛ ade a edi kan a wodi wɔ Bengali aduan mu, na ɛyɛ biribi a wɔde di kan. Wodi no wɔ mpataa mu. Margosa yɛ biribi a wɔde di dwuma wɔ South-East Asia, titiriw wɔ Cambodia, Laos (a wɔfrɛ no kadao [ກະເດົາ]), Thailand (a wɔfrɛ no sadao [สะเดา [sàʔ daw] anaa satao สะเตา [sàʔ taw]]), Myanmar (a wɔfrɛ no ta.ma [တမာ]) ne Vietnam (a wɔfrɛ no sầu đâu na wɔde noa salad gỏi sầu đâu). Sɛ wɔnoa aduan no brɛoo mpo a, ne dɛ yɛ yaw, na ɛnyɛ nnipa a wɔte aman yi mu nyinaa na wodi. Wɔ Myanmar no, wɔnoa margosa nhaban ne ne nhwiren nketenkete ne tamarind aba ma ne mu yɛ hyew na wodi no sɛ afumduan. Wodi margosa a wɔakyekyere ho no nso wɔ tomatoma ne mpataa a wɔde anoa nam mu wɔ Myanmar.

Atetesɛm mu nnuru[sesa]

Wɔde nnua a wɔde margosa ayɛ no adi dwuma wɔ tete India aduruyɛ mu mfehaha pii, de sa honam mu haw ne rheumatism,nanso enni adanse a ɛkyerɛ sɛ mfaso bi wɔ margosa a wɔde di dwuma wɔ aduruyɛ mu so. Wɔ mpaninfoɔ mu no, wɔnnya nhyehyeɛ pɔtee bi mmae, na sɛ wɔde margosa di dwuma bere tiaa bi a ɛte sɛ nea asiane biara nni mu, na sɛ wɔde di dwuma bere tenten a, ebetumi asɛe nkokora ne akwahosan; wɔ mmɔfra nketewa mu no, margosa ngo no yɛ awuduru na ebetumi de owuo aba.Margosa betumi nso ama obi ayi nyinsɛn agu, ne awo, ne mogya mu asikre a ɛtɔ fam. Wɔ India Anafo fam ne Middle-East no, wɔtaa de neem twigs di dwuma sɛ ɛwo hohoro twig. [ ɔhwɛ mu ]

Mmoawa a wɔsɛe ade ne ɔyare a wɔsɛe ade[sesa]

Margosa yɛ ade titiriw wɔ nnubɔne a wɔde di dwuma a ɛnyɛ mmoawammoawa ano aduru (NPM), na ɛma wonya nnuru a wɔde di dwuma wɔ ɔkwan foforo so. Wɔde Margosa aba no yɛ dɔte a wɔde gu nsu mu anadwo na wɔde gu aba no so. Sɛ ɛbɛyɛ adwuma yiye a, ɛsɛ sɛ wɔde di dwuma mpɛn pii, anyɛ yiye koraa no, da biara da du. Margosa nkum mmoawa tẽẽ. Ɛyɛ biribi a ɛmma nnɔbae no nnidi, ɛpam nnɔbae no, na ɛmma nnɔbae no ntutu, na ɛma nnɔbae no ho tɔ no. Ɔkɔm kunkum nkoekoemmoa no, na wowu wɔ nna kakraa bi mu. Margosa nso siw wɔn nkesua a ɛwo no kwan. Nnuan a wɔde Margosa ayɛ no aboa yiye wɔ atɔe fam akɔmfo ho. Wobetumi de Margosa abodoo adi dwuma sɛ aduhuam.[15] Wɔakyerɛ sɛ Margosa ngo tumi siw ntontom kwan sɛ biribi a ɛboa nnipa ma wonya sika.

Margosa ngo a wɔde yɛ polymeric resins[sesa]

Wɔde margosa ngo adi dwuma wɔ polymeric resins ho wɔ amanneɛbɔ ahorow a wɔde too gua nnansa yi mu. Wɔbɔ amanneɛ sɛ wɔde monoglyceride (MG) kwan na ɛyɛ alkyd resins ahorow a efi margosa ngo mu ne sɛnea wɔde siesie PU coatings no.[16] Alkyde ahorow no yɛ wɔn ho adwuma bere a wɔde nneɛma a wɔde yɛ nyinsɛn abien a wɔde yɛ nyinsɛn te sɛ phthalic ne maleic anhydrides ne MG a efi margosa ngo mu yɛ adwuma.

Ade foforo a wɔde di dwuma[sesa]

Dua: Margosa dua no ho hia kɛse esiane sɛ ɛko tia sare so a ɛreyɛ no nti, na ebetumi agye carbon dioxide. Wɔsan de di dwuma ma asase no nya nnɔbae pii. Fertilizer: neem extract de ka fertilizer (urea) ho sɛ nitrification inhibitor. Mmoa aduan: margosa ahaban no betumi adi dwuma bere ne bere mu sɛ nnuan ma akekantwɛre ne mpɔnkɔ. Nsa ho hohoro: margosa no yɛ biribi a wɔtaa de hohoro wɔn sẽ ho. Aduruyɛ Sɛnea American Journal of Neuroradiology kyerɛ no, margosa ngo betumi ama obi anya nsamanwaw ne aniwa yare ahorow bi, sɛ wɔdi no pii a ɛboro 150ml (5.07 US fluid ounces).

COVID-19 ano aduru a wɔka sɛ etumi sa yare no[sesa]

Wɔ March 2020 mu no, nnipa pii kaa nsɛm bi wɔ social media so wɔ Asia anafo fam apuei aman ne Afrika, a na wɔtaa so kyerɛ sɛ wobetumi de margosa ahaban adi COVID-19 ho dwuma. Malaysia Asoɛe a Ɛhwɛ Apɔwmuden So no bɔɔ anansesɛm a ɛfa nnuaba yi a wɔde sa COVID-19 ho no ano, na bɔɔ kɔkɔ wɔ apɔwmuden ho asiane a ɛwɔ nnuaba yi a wɔde di boro so no ho.

Genome ne transcriptomes[sesa]

Wɔayɛ Margosa genome ne transcriptomes a efi akwaa ahorow mu no ho nhwehwɛmu.Wɔde nnuaba, ahaban, nnuaba mesocarp, ne nnuaba endocarp mu nnwinnade a wɔde yɛ hybrid no ho nhomasua nhoma ahorow na ɛkyerɛɛ nnuaba no mu.

Amammerɛ ne asetena mu nkɛntɛnso[sesa]

Ne din Nimai ('wowoo no wɔ neem dua ase'), a ɛyɛ Bhakti movement Vaishnava saint ne Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (wɔn a wogye di sɛ ɛyɛ Radha Krishna a wɔwoo no wɔ Gaudiya Vaishnavism ne ISKCON mu) din no fi ne awo wɔ neem dua ase. Wɔ afe 1995 mu no, Europa Patent Ɔfese (EPO) maa United States Kuw a Ɛhwɛ Kuadwuma So ne W. R. Grace ne Company. Bere a wɔmaa India aban no tumi krataa no, wɔsɔre tiaa no, na wɔkae sɛ wɔde ɔkwan a wɔfa so ma tumi krataa no adi dwuma wɔ India bɛboro mfe 2,000 ni. Wɔ afe 2000 mu no, EPO no buu India bem, nanso W. R. Grace de asɛm no kɔɔ asɛnnibea foforo, na ɔkae sɛ wɔntaa ntoo nyansahu mu nhwehwɛmu a ɛfa aduro no ho no ase da. Wɔ March 8, 2005 mu no, EPO gyee Neem patenti no toom.

Abɔde a nkwa wom ho nimdeɛ[sesa]

Biofoe a wonya fi nnua no aba mu no wɔ limonoid triterpenes. Seesei de, nea ɛreyɛ no de ɔhaw bi aba te sɛ ntontom ne ntontom a ɛwowɔ no, ne limonoid ahorow a ɛwɔ mu no, esiane awosu, wim tebea, ne beae a wɔwowɔ nti. Nea ɛbɛyɛ na wɔadi ɔhaw ahorow yi so no, wɔasua limonoids a efi nnua mu nkwammoaa ne ntini mu ntini mu aba wɔ bioreactors mu,a nea ɛka ho ne nnua mu nkwammoaa a ɛwɔ afa abien a ɛboa ma limonoids nyin ne wɔn a wonya fi A. indica nkwammoaa mu aba no.

Baabi a menyaa mmoa firiiɛ[sesa]

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