Nhweren

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Wɔakyerɛw nsɛm yi wɔ Akuapem kasa mu

Nhwiren, a ɛtɔ mmere bi a wɔfrɛ no nhwiren anaa nhwiren, ne awo nhyehyɛe a wohu wɔ afifide a ɛsow nhwiren mu (afifide a ɛwɔ mpaapaemu Angiospermae mu). Abɔde mu dwumadi a nhwiren yɛ ne sɛ ɛbɛma awo ayɛ mmerɛw, mpɛn pii no denam ɔkwan bi a ɛma mmadwoa ne nkesua bom so. Nhwiren betumi ama outcrossing (nkwaboaa ne nkesua a efi ankorankoro ahorow mu a wɔde bɛka abom wɔ nnipa dodow bi mu) a efi cross-pollination mu ba no ayɛ mmerɛw anaasɛ ɛbɛma kwan ma selfing (nkwaboaa ne nkesua a efi nhwiren koro no ara mu a wɔde bɛka abom) bere a ankasa pollination ba no.

pollination ahorow abien na ɛwɔ hɔ: ne ho pollination ne cross-pollination. Anther-pollination ba bere a pollen a efi anther no mu no gu nhwiren koro no ara stigma so, anaasɛ nhwiren foforo a ɛwɔ afifide koro no ara so no. Cross-pollination yɛ bere a wɔde pollen fi nhwiren biako anther mu kɔ nhwiren foforo stigma so wɔ ankorankoro soronko bi a ɔyɛ nhwiren koro no ara so no. Nhwiren a ɛtwetwe ne ho no si wɔ nhwiren a stamen ne carpel no nyin bere koro mu, na wɔde si hɔ sɛnea ɛbɛyɛ a pollen no betumi akɔ fam wɔ nhwiren no stigma no so. Saa pollination yi nhia sika a efi afifide no hɔ na ama nectar ne pollen ayɛ aduan ama pollinators.[1]

Nhwiren binom ma diaspore ahorow ba a wɔmfa nnuru nhyɛ mu (parthenocarpy). Nhwiren wɔ sporangia na ɛhɔ na gametophytes nyin. Nhwiren pii adan a ɛyɛ fɛ ma mmoa, sɛnea ɛbɛyɛ a ɛbɛma ayɛ nneɛma a ɛde nsu mu nsu no kɔ baabi foforo. Sɛ nhwiren no hyɛ mu wie a, nhwiren no awotwaa no nyin bɛyɛ aba a aba wom.

Nea ɛka nhwiren a ɛma ɛyɛ mmerɛw sɛ wɔbɛsan awo ho no, nnipa ani gye nhwiren ho fi bere tenten na wɔde di dwuma ma nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia no yɛ fɛ, na ɛsan nso yɛ nneɛma a wɔde yɛ ɔdɔ, amanne, ahintasɛm, abayisɛm, nyamesom, nnuru a wɔde di dwuma wɔ biribiara mu, ne aduan fibea .

etymology ho adesua[sesa]

Nhwiren fi Mfinimfini Engiresi esiam mu, a na ɛkyerɛ aburow a wɔayam ne sɛnea afifide tumi awo no nyinaa ansa na ɛrepaapae wɔ afeha a ɛto so 17 mu. Mfiase no, efi Latin din a wɔde frɛ Italyfo nhwiren nyamewa Flora no mu. Asɛmfua a edi kan a wɔde frɛ nhwiren wɔ Borɔfo kasa mu ne nhwiren,[2] ɛwom sɛ mprempren ɛkyerɛ nhwiren a ɛyɛ nnua a ɛsow aba nkutoo de.[3]

dwumadie[sesa]

Nhwiren atirimpɔw titiriw ne sɛ ɛbɛsan awo onipa no ne ne su no. Afifide a ɛsow nhwiren nyinaa yɛ heterosporous, kyerɛ sɛ, afifide biara a ɛwɔ hɔ no yɛ spore ahorow abien. Microspores nam meiosis a ɛwɔ anthers mu na ɛba na megaspores ba ovules a ɛwɔ ovary mu no mu. Anthers taa yɛ microsporangia anan na ovule yɛ megasporangium a ɛyɛ integumented. Nkwammoaa ahorow abien no nyinaa nyin bɛyɛ gametophytes wɔ sporangia mu. Sɛnea ɛte wɔ afifide a ɛwɔ heterosporous nyinaa ho no, gametophytes no nso nyin wɔ spores no mu, i. e., wɔyɛ endosporic.

Wɔ afifide ahorow dodow no ara mu no, nhwiren ankorankoro wɔ carpels ne stamens a ɛyɛ adwuma nyinaa. Afifide ho animdefo ka nhwiren yi ho asɛm sɛ ɛyɛ pɛ anaasɛ ɛyɛ ɔbarima ne ɔbea nna, na nhwiren ahorow no ka ɔbarima ne ɔbea nna ho asɛm. Wɔ afifide ahorow kakraa bi mu no, wɔn nhwiren no nni awo akwaa biako anaa foforo na wɔka ho asɛm sɛ ɛnyɛ pɛ anaasɛ ɛyɛ ɔbarima ne ɔbea nna. Sɛ afifide ankorankoro a ɛwɔ ɔkwan bi so no mu biara wɔ nhwiren a ɛyɛ ɔbarima ne ɔbea nna biako a, ɛnde na afifide no yɛ nea ɛwɔ ɔbarima ne ɔbea nna biako. Sɛnea ɛbɛyɛ foforo no, sɛ afifide biara wɔ nhwiren a ɛyɛ ɔbarima ne ɔbea nna nkutoo a, ɛnde na afifide no yɛ dioecious.