Nkɔsoɔ a ɛtena hɔ daa(Sustainable development)

Ɛfi Wikipedia
Nkɔsoɔ a ɛtena hɔ daa(Sustainable development)
type of policy
subclass ofdevelopment Sesa
facet ofhuman development Sesa
has goalSustainable Development Goals Sesa
has characteristicsustainability Sesa
maintained by WikiProjectWikiProject Sustainable Development Sesa
Wɔatwerɛ nsɛm wei ɛwɔ Asante kasa mu
Nkɔsoɔ a ɛbɛtena hɔ daa hwehwɛ sɛ wɔyɛ ahoɔden titire nsia.[1]

Nkɔsoɔ a ɛtena hɔ daa yɛ nhyehyeɛ titire bi a ɛwɔ botaeɛ sɛ ɛbɛduru nnipa nkɔsoɔ botaeɛ ho berɛ a ɛrema abɔdeɛ mu nhyehyɛeɛ nso tumi de abɔdeɛ mu nneɛma ne abɔdeɛ a nkwa womu ho dwumadie a ɛhia ma nnipa. Nea wɔpɛ sɛ efiri mu ba ne ɔman a edi nnipa ahiadeɛ ho dwuma a ɛrensɛe planɛte ahodoɔ no mudie mu kura ne abɔdeɛ.[2][3] Nkɔsoɔ a ɛkɔ so daa bɔ mmɔden sɛ ɛbɛkari pɛ wɔ sikasɛm mu nkɔsoɔ, nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia ho banbɔ, ne asetena mu yiedie ntam . Bruntland Ammaneɛbɔ a ɛbaa afe 1987 mu no kyerɛɛ nkɔsoɔ a ɛtena hɔ daa ase sɛ 'nkɔsoɔ a ɛdi mprempren awoɔ ntoatoasoɔ no ahiadeɛ ho dwuma a ɛmma awoɔ ntoatoasoɔ a ɛbɛba daakye no tumi a wɔde bedi wɔn ankasa ahiadeɛ ho dwuma no nsɛe'.[4][5] Adwene a ɛfa nkɔsoɔ a ɛkɔ so daa ho nnɛ no de n’adwene si sikasɛm mu nkɔsoɔ, asetena mu nkɔsoɔ ne nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia ho banbɔ ama awoɔ ntoatoasoɔ a ɛbɛba daakye.

Wɔde Rio Adeyɛ a wofii ase wɔ 1992 Asaase Nhyiam a wɔyɛe wɔ Rio de Janeiro no dii kan de nkɔso a ɛtena hɔ daa sii hɔ . Wɔ afe 2015 mu no, Amanaman Nkabom Bagua Kɛseɛ (UNGA) gyee Nkɔsoɔ a Ɛkɔ So Daa Botaeɛ(2015 kɔsi 2030) na ɛkyerɛkyerɛɛ sɛdeɛ wɔaka botaeɛ no abom na wɔankyekyɛ mu na ama wɔanya nkɔsoɔ a ɛbɛtena hɔ daa wɔ wiase nyinaa.[6] UNGA botae ahorow 17 no di wiase nyinaa nsɛnnennen ho dwuma, a ohia, pɛyɛ a enni hɔ, wim nsakrae, nneɛma a nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia a wɔsɛe no, asomdwoe, ne atɛntrenee ka ho.

Nkɔsoɔ a ɛkɔ so daa ne adwene a ɛwɔ mmara mu a ɛne sɛ ɛbɛkɔ so atena hɔ daa no wɔ abusuabɔ . UNESCO hyehyɛɛ nsonsonoeɛ a ɛda adwene mmienu no ntam sɛdeɛ edidi soɔ yi: " Wɔtaa susuw sɛ nneɛma a ɛbɛkɔ so atena hɔ daa no yɛ botae a ɛtra hɔ kyɛ (kyerɛ sɛ wiase a ɛbɛkɔ so atra hɔ daa), bere a nkɔso a ɛtena hɔ daa no kyerɛ akwan ne akwan pii a wɔfa so du ho."[7] Wɔakasa atia adwene a ɛne sɛ nkɔso a ɛtena hɔ daa no wɔ akwan ahodoɔ so. Bere a ebinom hu no sɛ ɛyɛ abirabɔ (anaasɛ ɛyɛ oxymoron) na wobu nkɔsoɔ sɛ nea entumi nkɔ so fi awosu mu no, afoforɔ abam bu wɔ nkɔsoɔ a ennyaa de besi nnɛ no ho.[8] Ɔhaw no fã bi ne sɛ wɔankyerɛkyerɛ "nkɔsoɔ'' ankasa mu bere nyinaa.[9]

Mfonyini ahodoɔ pii a wɔde aniwa hu a ɛkyerɛ sustainability development ne nsusuiɛ mmiɛnsa: benkum so mfonyini no kyerɛ sɛnea sustainability development sɛ nkuruwankuruwa mmiɛnsa a ɛtwam. Wɔ soro nifa so no ɛyɛ te sɛ ebuo. Wɔ aseɛ nifa so no, ɛyɛ adum mmiɛnsa.[10] Schematic a ɛwɔ nested ellipses no si nsusuiɛ ahodoɔ no nhyehyɛe a ɛkɔ soro so dua, na ɛde nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia no si fapem ma mmienu a aka no.

Nkyerɛaseɛ[sesa]

Wɔ 1987 mu no, Amanaman Nkabom Wiase Nyinaa Bagua a Ɛhwɛ Nneɛma a Atwa Yɛn Ho Ahyia ne Nkɔsoɔ So no (World Commission on Environment and Development) yii amanneɛbɔ a wɔato din Our Common Future, a wɔtaa frɛ no Brundtland Amanneɛbɔ[11] no de nkyerɛaseɛ a ɛfa "nkɔsoɔ a ɛkɔ so daa" a seesei wɔde di dwuma kɛseɛ ka ho:[12][11]

Nkɔsoɔ a ɛkɔ so daa yɛ nkɔsoɔ a ɛdi mprempren ahiadeɛ ho dwuma a ɛnsɛe tumi a awoɔ ntoatoasoɔ a ɛbɛba daakye wɔ sɛ wɔbɛdi wɔn ankasa ahiadeɛ ho dwuma. Nsusuwii atitire mmienu na ɛwɔ mu:

Adwene a ɛne ‘ahiadeɛ’, titire, wiase ahiafoɔ ahiadeɛ ahodoɔ a ɛho hia, a ɛsɛ sɛ wɔde di kan sen biara; ne

Adwene a ɛfa anohyeto ahorow a mfiridwuma tebea ne asetra mu nhyehyɛe de to nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia a ebetumi adi mprempren ne daakye ahiade ahorow ho dwuma no so.

— Wiase Nyinaa Bagua a Ɛhwɛ Nneɛma a Atwa Yɛn Ho Ahyia ne Nkɔso So, Yɛn Daakye a Yɛbom Yɛ( World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common Future (1987)

Enti nkɔsoɔ a ɛtena hɔ daa bɔ mmɔden sɛ ɛbɛkari pɛ wɔ sikasɛm mu nkɔsoɔ, nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia ho banbɔ, ne asetena mu yiedie ntam.

Enti nkɔsoɔ a ɛtena hɔ daa bɔ mmɔden sɛ ɛbɛkari pɛ wɔ sikasɛm mu nkɔsoɔ, nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia ho banbɔ, ne asetena mu yiedie ntam.

Nsusui ahodoɔ a ɛfa ho[sesa]

Deɛ ebetumi atim( sustainability)[sesa]

Nneɛma a ɛbɛkɔ so atena hɔ daa yɛ asetena mu botae a ɛbɛma nnipa bɛbom atena Asase so berɛ tenten. Wɔagye asɛmfua yi nkyerɛaseɛ pɔteeahodoɔ ho akyinnyeɛ na ɛsono sɛdeɛ nwoma, nsɛm a ɛfa ho, ne berɛ akyerɛ aseɛ.[13] [14] Abenfoɔ taa ka nneɛma a ɛbɛtena hɔ daa ho asɛm sɛ ɛwɔ afã mmiɛnsa (anaasɛ adum): nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia, sikasɛm, ne asetena mu,[14] na nwoma pii si nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia deɛ no so dua.[15][16] Wɔ da biara da dwumadie mu no,nkɔsoɔ a ɛbɛtena hɔ daa no taa twe adwene si nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia ho haw akɛseɛ a wɔbɛko atia so, a wim nsakraeɛ, abɔdeɛ a nkwa wom a wɔhwere, abɔdeɛ a nkwa wom dwumadie a wɔhwere, asase a wɔsɛe no, ne mframa ne nsuo a wɔsɛe no ka ho. Nsusui a ɛfa nneɛma a ɛbɛkɔ so atena hɔ daa ho no betumi akyerɛ gyinaesi ahodoɔ kwan wɔ wiase nyinaa, ɔman, ne ankorankoro gyinabea (e.g. asetena a ɛkɔ so daa).[17] Adwene a ɛfa ho ne nkɔso a ɛtena hɔ daa, na wɔtaa de nsɛmfua no di dwuma de kyerɛ ade korɔ.[18] UNESCO kyerɛ nsonsonoe a ɛda nsusui mmienu no ntam te sɛ eyi: "Wɔtaa susu sɛ nneɛma a ɛbɛkɔ so atena hɔ daa no yɛ botae a ɛtena hɔ kyɛ (i.e. wiase a ɛtena hɔ daa kɛseɛ), bere a nkɔso a ɛtena hɔ daa no kyerɛ akwan ahodoɔ pii a wɔfa so du ho."[19]

Sɛnea Wɔyɛe( Development of the concept)[sesa]

Nkɔso a ɛkɔ so daa firi nsusuwii ahodoɔ a ɛfa kwae a wɔhwɛ so yiye ho, a wɔyɛe wɔ Europa wɔ afeha a ɛto so 17 ne 18 mu no mu.[20][21] Bere a John Evelyn rebua nhumu a ɛrenya nkɔanim wɔ nnua a ɛwɔ England a ɛresɛe no ho no, ɔkae wɔ n’asɛm a ɔkyerɛwee wɔ 1662 mu Sylva, mu sɛ “na ɛsɛ sɛ wobu nnua a wogu na wodua sɛ asase wura biara ɔman asɛyɛde, na ama wɔagyae nneɛma a ɛsɛe ade no.” abɔdeɛ mu nneɛma a wɔde di dwuma boro so''. Wɔ 1713 mu no,Hans Carl von Carlowitz, a ɔyɛ ɔtopae sohwɛfo panyin a ɔsom Ɔpawfo Frederick Augustus I a ofi Saxony no tintim Sylvicultura economics, nhoma a ekura nkratafa 400 a ɛfa kwae ho.[11] Von Carlowitz de Evelyn ne Franse ɔsomfo Jean-Baptiste Colbert adwene sii so de adwene a ɛne sɛ wɔbɛhwɛ kwae so na ama wɔanya nnɔbae a ɛtena hɔ daa. N’adwuma no nyaa afoforɔ so nkɛntɛnso, a Alexander von Humboldt ne Georg Ludwig Hartig ka ho, na awiei koraa no ɛmaa wonyaa kwae ho nyansahu. Eyi nso nyaa nnipa te sɛ Gifford Pinchot, U.S. Kwae Dwumadibea no panyin a odi kan, a na adwene a ɛne sɛ wɔde nneɛma bedi dwuma nyansam na ɛkanyan ɔkwan a ɔfaa so hwɛ kwae so no, ne Aldo Leopold a n’asase so abrabɔ pa nyaa nkɛntɛnso wɔ nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia no nkɔso mu kuo no mu wɔ 1960 mfe no mu.[12][11]

Bere a wotintim Rachel Carson nhoma Silent Spring wɔ 1962 mu akyi no, nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia ho kuo a na ɛrenya nkɔso no twee adwene sii abusuabɔ a ɛda sikasɛm mu nkɔso ne nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia a wɔsɛe no ntam no so. Kenneth E. Boulding, wɔ ne 1966 asɛm a ɛwɔ nkɛntɛnso The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth mu no, kyerɛɛ hia a ehia sɛ sikasɛm nhyehyɛe no fata nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia nhyehyɛe a ɛwɔ nneɛma kakraa bi a ɛwɔ mu no. Ade foforo a ɛho hia ne asɛm a Garrett Hardin kyerɛwee wɔ afe 1968 mu a ɛmaa asɛmfua "awerɛhosɛm a ɛfa nnipa dodow no ara ho" gyee din.[22]


Yebetumi ahu abusuabɔ tẽẽ a ɛda nkɔsoɔ a ɛtena hɔ daa ne nkɔsoɔ ntam wɔ nnɛyi ntease mu no fi 1970 mfe no mfiase. "Strategy of Progress", nhoma bi (wɔ German kasa mu) a Ernst Basler kyerɛwee wɔ afe 1972 mu, kyerɛkyerɛɛ sɛnea wobetumi de adwene a wɔagye atom berɛ tenten a ɛne sɛ wɔbɛkora kwaeɛ so ama nnua a wɔbɛyɛ daakye no tẽẽ akɔ hia a ɛtrɛw sɛ wɔbɛkora nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia so na ama wiase no akɔ so atena hɔ daakye no mu awoɔ ntoatoasoɔ ahodoɔ. Saa afe no ara mu no, wɔdaa abusuabɔ a ɛda nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia ne nkɔsoɔ ntam adi wɔ ɔkwan a ɛfata so wɔ nhyehyɛe ahodoɔ a ɛyɛ nnam 'simulation model' a wɔbɔɔ ho amanneɛ wɔ amanneɛbɔ a wɔagye din a ɛfa Limits to Growth ho no mu. Rome Kuw no na ɛhyɛɛ sɛ wɔmfa nyɛ adwuma, na nyansahufo kuw bi a Dennis ne Donella Meadows a wɔwɔ Massachusetts Mfiridwuma Sukuu mu di wɔn anim na wɔkyerɛwee. Bere a akyerɛwfo no reka "wiase nyinaa kari pɛ tebea" a wɔpɛ no ho asɛm no, wɔkyerɛwee sɛ: "Yɛrehwehwɛ nhwɛsode a efi mu ba a egyina hɔ ma wiase nhyehyɛe a ɛtra hɔ daa a enhwe ase mpofirim na wontumi nni so na ebetumi adi ne nkurɔfo nyinaa honam fam ahiade atitiriw ho dwuma." Afei nso wɔ afe 1972 mu no, wotintim nhoma a ɛwɔ nkɛntɛnso, A Blueprint for Survival.[23][24]

Wɔ afe 1975 mu no, MIT nhwehwɛmu kuw bi siesiee nna du atiefo a ɛfa "Nkɔso ne Nea Ɛkyerɛ ma Daakye" ho maa U.S. Mmarahyɛ Bagua no, asɛm a edi kan a wɔyɛe pɛn a ɛfa nkɔso a ɛtra hɔ daa ho.[25]


Wɔ afe 1980 mu no, Amanaman Ntam Nkabom Kuo a Ɛhwɛ Abɔdeɛ So no tintim wiase nyinaa nneɛma a wɔkora soɔ ho nhyehyɛeɛ a ɛkaa nsɛm a ɛdi kan a wɔkaa nkɔsoɔ a ɛkɔ so daa ho asɛm sɛ wiase nyinaa adeɛ a ɛho hia paa no mu baako[26] na wɔde asɛmfua "nkɔsoɔ a ɛkɔ so daa" baeɛ. Mfeɛ mmienu akyi no, wɔde nsɛm a ɛdi kan a ɛfa nkɔsoɔ a ɛkɔ so daa ho no mu baako ka ho Amanaman Nkabom Wiase Nyinaa Mmara a Ɛfa Abɔdeɛ Ho no maa nnyinasosɛm anum a ɛfa nneɛma a wɔkora so ho sɔree a ɛsɛ sɛ wɔfa so kyerɛ nnipa nneyɛe a ɛka abɔdeɛ kwan na wobu atɛn.[27]


Efi Brundtland Amanneɛbɔ no so no, adwene a ɛfa nkɔsoɔ a ɛkɔ so daa ho no anya nkɔsoɔ a ɛboro awoɔ ntoatoasoɔ ntam nhyehyɛeɛ a ɛdi kan no so de wɔn adwene asi botaeɛ a ɛne sɛ "sikasɛm mu nkɔsoɔ a ɛbɛka asetena mu nyinaa na ɛbɛtena hɔ daa" so kɛseɛ. Wɔ afe 1992 mu no, UN Nhyiamu a ɛfa nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia ne nkɔsoɔ ho no tintimii Asase Mmara a ɛkyerɛ sɛnea wɔbɛkyekye wiase nyinaa ɔman a ɛteɛ, a ɛbɛkɔ so atra hɔ, na asomdwoe wom wɔ afeha a ɛto so 21 yi mu no. Dwumadie nhyehyeɛ Agenda 21 a ɛfa nkɔsoɔ a ɛbɛtena hɔ daa ho no kyerɛɛ nsɛm, nkabom, ne kyɛfa a wɔde bɛhyɛ mu sɛ adansifoɔ titire a ɛbɛboa aman ma wɔanya nkɔsoɔ a ɛgye saa adum a ɛgyina wɔn ho wɔn ho yi tom. Bio nso, Agenda 21 si so dua sɛ ɔmanfoɔ kyɛfa a ɛtrɛ wɔ gyinaesie mu yɛ adeɛ titire a ɛsɛ sɛ wɔdi kan yɛ ansa na wɔanya nkɔsoɔ a ɛbɛtena hɔ daa.[28]

Na Rio Apam no yɛ ade kɛse a ɛkɔ anim: nea edi kan no, wiase no penee so sɛ wɔbɛyɛ nhyehyɛe a ɛbɛma wɔakɔ so atra hɔ daa. Nokwarem no, wɔmaa wiase nyinaa adwene a ɛwɔ hɔ no yɛɛ mmerɛw denam botae pɔtee ne adwumayɛ ho nsɛm a wobuu wɔn ani guu so no so. Mprempren Nkɔsoɔ a Ɛkɔ So Daa Botaeɛ (SDGs) no wɔ botaeɛ pɔtee (a ɛnte sɛ nea ɛfiri Rio Dwumadie no mu aba) nanso enni akwan a wɔbɛfa so de anohyetoɔ ama.[29]

Nsusuiɛ Ahodoɔ(Dimensions)[sesa]

Nneɛma a ɛbɛkɔ so atena hɔ daa(sustainability development) Venn Diagram, baabi a wosusu sɛ nneɛma a ɛbɛkɔ so atena hɔ daa no yɛ beaɛ a nneɛma mmiɛnsa no hyia.

Wobu nkɔsoɔ a ɛkɔ so daa, te sɛ nkɔsoɔ a ɛbɛtena hɔ daa, sɛ ɛwɔ afã mmiɛnsa: nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia, sikasɛm ne ɔmanfoɔ. Adwene no ne sɛ ɛsɛ sɛ wɔkari pɛ yiye wɔ afã mmiɛnsa no ntam. Sɛ́ anka yɛbɛfrɛ wɔn nsusuiɛ no, nsɛmfua afoforoɔ a wɔtaa de di dwuma ne adum, domɛn, afã hodoɔ, kurukuruwa.

Nhomanimfoɔ taa kyerɛ nsonsonoeɛ a ɛda nneɛma ahodoɔ mmiɛnsa a ɛfa nneɛma a ɛbɛkɔ so atena hɔ daa ho. Eyinom ne nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia, asetena, ne sikasɛm. Wɔde nsɛmfua pii di dwuma ma saa adwene yi. Atwerɛfoɔ betumi aka adum mmiɛnsa, nsusuiɛ, nneɛma a ɛwom, afã hodoɔ,[30] adwene, nneɛma, anaa botae ahodoɔ ho asɛm. Ne nyinaa kyerɛ ade korɔ wɔ saa asɛm yi mu.[11] Nneɛma mmiɛnsa nhwɛsodeɛ no nni nsusuiɛ fapem kakraa bi. Ɛpuei a na ɛnyɛ baabi baako mpo a ɛfirii.[11] [31] Nhomanimfoɔ ntaa nnye nsonsonoe no ankasa ho kyim. Adwene a ɛfa nkɔsoɔ a ɛwɔ afã mmiɛnsa ho no yɛ nkyerɛaseɛ titire wɔ nwoma mu.

Aman betumi ayɛ nhyehyeɛ a wɔde bɛhwɛ na wɔasusu nkɔsoɔ a ɛwɔ nkɔsoɔ a ɛbɛtena hɔ daa ho denam nsɛnkyerɛnneɛ a wɔbɛfa so asusu nsakraeɛ a ɛba wɔ sikasɛm, asetena ne nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia mu no so.


— Amanaman Nkabom Nhyiam a Ɛfa Nneɛma a Atwa Yɛn Ho Ahyia & Nkɔso Ho – Asase Nhyiam( United Nations Conference on Environment & Development – Earth Summit (1992) [32]

Kasatia(Critique)[sesa]

Adwene a ɛfa nkɔsoɔ a ɛtena hɔ daa ho no ayɛ nea wɔkasa tia, na ɛda so ara wɔ hɔ, a asɛmmisa a ɛfa 'nea ɛsɛ sɛ ɛkɔ so tena hɔ daa' wɔ nkɔsoɔ a ɛtena hɔ daa mu ka ho. Wɔaka sɛ biribiara nni hɔ a wɔfrɛ no adeɛ a ɛnyɛ foforɔ a wɔde bedi dwuma daa, efisɛ awiei koraa no, mfasoɔ pa biara a wɔde bedi dwuma no bɛma asase so nneɛma a ɛwɔ anohyetoɔ no asa; saa adwene yi ma Mfiridwuma mu Ɔsesɛw (Industrial Revolution) no yɛ a ne nyinaa ntumi nkɔ so.[33][34]

Nkɔsoɔ a ɛkɔ so daa ho akyinnyegyeɛ no gyina adwene a ɛne sɛ ɛhia sɛ amanfoɔ di kapital ahodoɔ mmiɛnsa (sikasɛm, asetena, ne abɔdeɛ mu), a ebia wɔrentumi nsi ananmu na ebia wɔrentumi nsakra nea wɔde di dwuma no so.[35] Ɛnyɛ nea wobetumi de sikasɛm mu kapital asi abɔdeɛ mu kapital ananmu. Berɛ a ebetumi aba sɛ yebetumi anya akwan a yɛbɛfa so de abɔdeɛ mu nneɛma bi asi ananmu no, ɛnyɛ den koraa sɛ wobetumi de asi abɔdeɛ a nkwa wom ho nnwuma ananmu da bi, te sɛ ahobammɔ a ozone a ɛwɔ soro no de ma, anaasɛ Amazon kwae no dwumadi a ɛma wim tebea yɛ den .

Wɔakasa atia adwene a ɛfa nkɔso a ɛtena hɔ daa ho no afi mmeaɛ ahodoɔ. Berɛ a ebinom hu no sɛ ɛyɛ abirabɔ (anaasɛ ɛyɛ oxymoron) na wobu nkɔsoɔ sɛ nea entumi nkɔ so fi awosuo mu no, afoforɔ abam bu wɔ nkɔsoɔ a ennyaa de besi nnɛ no ho.[36] Ɔhaw no fã bi ne sɛ wɔankyerɛkyerɛ "nkɔso" ankasa mu berɛ nyinaa.[8][37] Adwene a ɛte saa no ne adesuafoɔ atitire no adwene wɔ ho nhyia esiane sɛ wɔtaa gye tom sɛ kapitalism akwan hodoɔ no ne adwene a ɛne sɛ nnipa bɛkɔ so atena hɔ berɛ tenten no nhyia

Wɔakasa atia Brundtland nkyerɛaseɛ a ɛfa nkɔsoɔ a ɛkɔ so daa ho a emu nna hɔ no sɛdeɛ ɛdidi soɔ yi:[8] Nkyerɛaseɛ no "abue kwan sɛ wɔbɛbu nkɔsoɔ a ɛkɔ so daa no animtiaa. Enti, aban ahodoɔ trɛw nkrasɛm a ɛne sɛ yɛbɛtumi anya ne nyinaa wɔ berɛ korɔ mu, a ɛne sikasɛm mu nkɔsoɔ, aman a wodi yiye ne nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia a ɛyɛ papa.Abrabɔ pa foforɔ biara nhia.Saa mmerɛwyɛ a ɛfa nneɛma a ɛbɛkɔ so atena hɔ daa ho yi yɛ nea aban ahodoɔ, ne nnwuma ahodoɔ ani gye ho, nanso ɛyɛ mfomsoɔ kɛse na ɛnyɛ mmerɛw mpo, efisɛ ɔkwan foforo biara nni hɔ a wɔbɛfa so akora asase so nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia so no nokwaredi."[38]

Akwan A Wɔfa So[sesa]

Ahwehwɛdeɛ Ahodoɔ[sesa]

Wobu tumi nsia a egyina ne ho so no sɛ adeɛ a ehia na ama woatumi adi nkɔsoɔ a ɛtena hɔ daa akyi yiye.[1] Weinom ne susudeɛ ahodoɔ a wɔde susu nkɔsoɔ a ɛkɔ sustainable development mu; sɛ wɔbɛhyɛ pɛpɛyɛ ho nkuran wɔ awoɔ ntoatoasoɔ ahodoɔ mu ne wɔn ntam; wobɛdannan wo ho ma ɛne ahodwiri ne nneɛma a ɛba mpofirim hyia; dane nhyehyɛe no kɔ nkɔsoɔ akwan a ɛtena hɔ daa so; bata nimdeɛ ne adeyɛ a ɛbɛma nneɛma akɔ so atena hɔ daa ho; na wɔayɛ nnisoɔ nhyehyɛe a ɛbɛma nkurɔfo atumi abom ayɛ adwuma.

Nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia su ahodoɔ a ɛwɔ nkuro a ɛtena hɔ daa mu[sesa]

Nkuro a ɛtena hɔ daa yɛ nkuro akɛseɛ a ɛnam nkurow akɛseɛ ho nhyehyɛe ne ne sohwɛ so ma nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia no tu mpɔn. Sɛ wopɛ nkyerɛase a ɛfa abɔde a nkwa wom kurow ho a, fa no sɛ kurow bi a ɛwɔ agoprama pii ne mmeae a ɛhɔ yɛ frɔmfrɔm, adan a ɛde owia ahoɔden na ɛyɛ adwuma, turo a ɛwɔ ɔdan atifi, ne nnipa a wɔnam fam ne sakre pii sen kar. Wei nyɛ daakye ho daeɛ. Abɛɛfo nkuropɔn de nsi asi kwan so rebɛyɛ nkurow akɛseɛ a abɔdeɛ a nkwa womu a ɛyɛ ahabammono ne nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia ho nhyehyɛe pa.[39]

Beae A Minyaa Mmoa Firiiɛ[sesa]

  1. 1.0 1.1 https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-environ-012420-043621
  2. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00139157.2005.10524444
  3. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23311886.2019.1653531
  4. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/5987our-common-future.pdf
  5. http://www.un-documents.net/ocf-02.htm
  6. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11625-018-0627-5
  7. https://www.unesco.org/en/education-sustainable-development
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 https://academic.oup.com/bioscience/article/65/10/1027/1996049?login=false
  9. https://www.worldcat.org/title/1124780147
  10. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11625-018-0627-5
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/5987our-common-future.pdf
  12. 12.0 12.1 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07488008808408783
  13. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10806-015-9578-3
  14. 14.0 14.1 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11625-018-0627-5
  15. https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/political-impact-of-the-sustainable-development-goals/planetary-integrity/147A3264C1C585FF83CA3E27FB0550B3
  16. https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/2/8/2424
  17. https://www.worldcat.org/title/1124780147
  18. https://www.britannica.com/science/sustainability
  19. https://www.unesco.org/en/education-sustainable-development
  20. https://bibliothek.wzb.eu/pdf/2007/p07-002.pdf
  21. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15693430600688831
  22. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17756331/
  23. https://www.nytimes.com/1972/02/05/archives/a-blueprint-for-survival.html
  24. https://theecologist.org/2012/jan/27/ecologist-january-1972-blueprint-survival
  25. https://web.archive.org/web/20160304033056/http://www.wpainc.com/Archive/MIT/Growth%20and%20Its%20Implications.pdf
  26. http://www.a21italy.it/medias/31C2D26FD81B0D40.pdf
  27. https://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/37/a37r007.htm
  28. https://learningforsustainability.net/susdev/
  29. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2012/jun/12/rio20-agenda-politicians-john-gummer
  30. https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/generalassembly/docs/globalcompact/A_RES_60_1.pdf
  31. https://www.nachhaltigkeit.info/artikel/definitionen_1382.htm
  32. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/Agenda21.pdf
  33. https://archive.org/details/entropylawe00nich
  34. https://www.foet.org/FOET-data/uploads/2017/03/Jeremy-Rifkin-Entropy-table-of-contents.pdf
  35. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bse.323
  36. https://academic.oup.com/bioscience/article/65/10/1027/1996049?login=false
  37. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/sd.2645
  38. https://www.worldcat.org/title/951915998
  39. https://www.globalgoals.org/goals/11-sustainable-cities-and-communities/