Fogo Bepɔw (Pico do Fogo)

Ɛfi Wikipedia
Fogo Bepɔw (Pico do Fogo)
mountain
continentAbibiman Sesa
ƆmanCape Verde Sesa
located in the administrative territorial entitySanta Catarina do Fogo Sesa
located in/on physical featureFogo Sesa
coordinate location14°56′57″N 24°20′25″W Sesa
made from materialfeldspathoid Sesa
heritage designationImportant Bird Area Sesa
described at URLhttps://www.capeverdeislands.org/pico-do-fogo/ Sesa
category for the view of the itemCategory:Views of Pico do Fogo Sesa
Map
Wɔakyerɛw nsɛm yi wɔ Akuapem kasa mu

Fogo Bepɔw anaa Pico do Fogo a wɔbɔ din [ˈpiku du ˈfoɡu] yɛ Cape Verde ne Afrika Atɔe fam bepɔw a ɛkorɔn sen biara, na ɛkɔ soro kodu mita 2,829 (anammɔn 9,2819 - 9,2819 ft) a ɛboro po so. Ɛyɛ ogya bepɔw a ɛyɛ nnam a ɛda Fogo supɔw so . Cone titiriw no paee nea etwa to wɔ 1680 mu, na ɛmaa nnipa pii tu fii supɔw no so.[1] Mframa a wɔde fa mu fa bi paee wɔ 1995 mu. Paapaee a ekunkum nnipa biako pɛ ne 1847 mu bere a asasewosow kunkum nnipa pii no.

Fogo (asɛmfua no kyerɛ "ogya" wɔ Portugal kasa mu) yɛ ogya bepɔw supɔw a ɛyɛ hyew (hotspot volcanic island).[2] Nea ɛpaee nnansa yi ara no sii wɔ afe 1951, 1995 ne 2014 mu. Ɛyɛ ogya bepɔw a ɛyɛ ketewaa na ɛyɛ nnam sen biara wɔ Cape Verde Nsupɔw no so, ogya bepɔw nsupɔw a mpɛn pii no ɛyɛ nketewa wɔ atɔe fam awiei no nkɔnsɔnkɔnsɔn tiawa, a ɛbae bere a Afrika Mprɛte no kɔɔ apuei fam wɔ beae a ɛhɔ yɛ hyew no.[3]

Fogo yɛ ogya bepɔw biako, enti ɛkame ayɛ sɛ supɔw no yɛ kurukuruwa na ne tenten bɛyɛ kilomita eduonu enum (25) (akwansin 16) wɔ ne ntwemu (diameter). Supɔw no atifi caldera kɛse no (bɛyɛ kilomita 10 wɔ atifi–anafo kwan so ne kilomita esuon (7) wɔ apuei–atɔe kwan so) no nni supɔw no mfinimfini, na mmom ɛkɔ n’atifi fam apuei ntwea so. Fault scarps a ɛso yɛ toro a ɛkame ayɛ sɛ ɛda hɔ wɔ atifi, atɔe, ne anafo fam na atwa caldera no hye nanso wɔabue mu wɔ apuei fam baabi a ogyaframa betumi asen akɔ mpoano.[4] Mpaapae a ɛpae a ɛkɔ atifi fam apuei no buee wɔ Pico atɔe fam afa, na ɛbaa caldera no mu wɔ bɛyɛ afe 1500 ne 1760 ntam hɔ. Nea etwa to a ɛpaee fii soro no yɛ 1769 mu. Fogo asase a ɛwɔ hɔ mprempren a caldera no abue ama po wɔ apuei fam no fi ogya bepɔw no apuei fam fa a ɛtwetwe kɔ po no so no.[3]

Wɔde bepɔw no mpoano na wodua kɔfe (coffee), bere a wɔde ne abotan (lava) no yɛ adansi nneɛma. Ɛbɛn ne sorosoro no, ɔbotan (caldera) bi wɔ hɔ ne akuraa ketewaa bi, Cha das Caldeiras, wɔ saa ɔbotan (caldera) yi mu. Wɔfrɛ ɔbotan no ano a ɛkɔ soro mita 2,700 no Bordeira.

Mfe 73,000 a atwam ni[sesa]

Fogo apuei fam fa no bubui guu po mu mfe 73,000 a atwam ni, na ɛde tsunami a ne sorokɔ yɛ mita 170 bae a ɛbɔɔ Santiago supɔw a ɛbɛn hɔ no so. Wɔnam isotope nhwehwɛmu a wɔyɛe wɔ abotan a wɔde guu Santiago so no so na ɛkyerɛɛ bere a tsunami no bae.[5]

1680 AD ɔtopae a ɛpaee[sesa]

Wɔ afe 1680 AD mu no, Pico do Fogo atifi a ɛpaee kɛse bi maa nso akɛse a ɛtɔe wɔ supɔw no nyinaa so ma ɛmaa kuayɛ nsase no yɛɛ nea wontumi mfa nni dwuma bere tiaa bi na ɛkanyan nnipa pii a wotu fii supɔw no so, kɔɔ Brava titiriw.[6]

1995 mu ɔtopae a ɛpaee[sesa]

1995 mu ɔtopae no fii ase wɔ Oforisuo 2 – 3 anadwo, na ɛde nsõ mununkum (cloud of ash) kataa supɔw no so.[3] Wotuu nnipa a wɔte hɔ no fii Cha das Caldeiras, bere a wɔsɛee wɔn afie no.[7]

Satellite mfonini a ɛkyerɛ Fogo.

Nnipa a wɔte hɔ no bɔɔ amanneɛ sɛ asasewosow nketenkete a efii ase bɛyɛ nnansia ansa na ogyaframa a edi kan repae no dii ɔtopae no anim. Asasewosow yi kɛse ne mpɛn pii kosii Oforisuo 2, na wɔbɔɔ amanneɛ sɛ asasewosow a ano yɛ den titiriw bi sii bɛyɛ anadwo nnɔnwɔtwe, nnɔnhwerew anan ansa na ɛda adi sɛ ɔtopae no refi ase. Anadwo fa akyi pɛɛ no, mpaapaemu buei wɔ Pico afa. Ɔtefo bi kae sɛ ɛte sɛ nea "wɔde sekan atwitwa cone no." Ɔpae no fii ase wɔ Strombolian dwumadi mu, na ntɛm ara na ‘ ogya ntama’ a ɛyɛ abotan a ɛma nsu a ɛsen a ɛtwaa ɔkwan a ɛkɔ Portela akuraa ase anɔpa nnɔn abien no aduan dii akyi bae Nnipa 1,300 a wɔte caldera no mu no guan anadwo kɔɔ nkuraa a ɛwɔ atifi fam mpoano no ase. Wɔankum obiara, nanso na nnipa bɛyɛ 20 na wohia ayaresa.[3]

Oforisuo 3 awiabere no, na nsõ tuntum mununkum a ɛyɛ den a ne sorokɔ kodu kilomita 2.5 kosi 5 kataa supɔw no so. Ná nsu a ɛsen mfiase no yɛ pahoehoe lava, ɛwom sɛ ɛda adi sɛ na ne kɛse sua de. Basabasayɛ a ɛpaee no maa ɔtopae a ɛyɛ hyew a ne ntwemu bɛyɛ mita 4 a wɔtow fii mframa kwan no so koduu mita 500 bae. Wɔ Oforisuo 4 no, nsuten a ɛyɛ ɔbotan no sorokɔ duu mita 400 wɔ nsõ mununkum bi a ne sorokɔ bɛyɛ kilomita 2 ase. Scoria cone foforo bi bae a na ebue kɔ anafo fam atɔe na ɛmaa ogyaframa a ɛrenya nkɔanim no nya aduan . Wɔ Oforisuo 5 no, ogyaframa foforo a ɛsen no duu atɔe fam caldera ɔfasu no ho na ɛsɛee afie bɛyɛ anum ne nsukorabea kɛse no. Wɔ nna kakraa a edi kan yi mu no, aban mpanyimfo tuu nnipa bɛyɛ 3,000 fii hɔ.[3]

Cha das Caldeiras ne nsõ titiriw, Fogo, 2009

Ɔpae no bɛyɛɛ nea ɛkɔ so pintinn wɔ nna kakraa a edi kan no akyi, na nsuten a ɛyɛ mmerɛw, a ɛte sɛ Hawaiifo de a ne sorokɔ bɛyɛ mita 100–120 sii apetepete a ne sorokɔ bɛboro mita 140. Ná nsu a ɛsen no yɛ ɔbotan, na ɛsen kɔ atɔe fam kɔ caldera ɔfasu no ho, afei ɛdan kɔ atifi fam. Saa nsu a ɛsen yi kɔɔ anim bere ne bere mu bere a nhyɛso a efi atare a ɛsen ne nsu a ɛsen no mu yɛɛ den no mu bae no. Wɔ Oforisuo 13 no, ogyaframa a ɛto so abien fii ase kataa ogyaframa a edii kan bae a na enhinhim no so, na ɛkame ayɛ sɛ na ɛwɔ nsu a edii kan bae no atifi koraa kosii Oforisuo 15, bere a ɛtrɛwee na ɛsɛee ofie foforo no. Cinder hwee ase koduu kilomita abien wɔ mframa a wɔde fa mu no anafo fam wɔ Oforisuo 15. Eduu da a ɛto so 17 no, na nsu a ɛsen no akɔ anim akodu mita 420 fi ofie a ɛbɛn hɔ sen biara wɔ Portela akuraa ase no ase.[3]

Oforisuo 18 no, asasewosow kyerɛwtohɔ a wotumi fa so fii ase kyerɛw ogya bepɔw mu wosow a ano yɛ den kɛse a ɛkyerɛ sɛ nsakrae aba wɔ ɔkwan a wɔfa so pae mu fi ogyaframa nsuten mu san kɔɔ Strombolian dwumadi mu. Wɔde gas a ɛpae denneennen guu spatter mu wɔ sikɔne 3-8 biara mu. Nea ɛka ho no, sɛnea ɛpae no kɔɔ soro na na ɔkwan no atifi mita 300 no fa kɛse no ara yɛ pahoehoe lava. Nneɛma a ɛpaee no dodow a wobuu akontaa fii ne kɛse ne sɛnea ɛsen wɔ asubɔnten no mu no yɛ cubic mita ɔpepem 4 kosi 8.5 da biara.[3]

Oforisuo 18 anadwo no, nneɛma akɛse a ɛpaee toatoaa so a ebia edii cone no afa horow a ɛhwee ase kɔɔ mframa a wɔde fa mu no mu na akyiri yi wɔde nneɛma a ɛpaee fii nneɛma a asɛe no mu no akyi. Eduu anɔpa no, na dwumadi no asan akɔ ɔbotan a ɛyɛ hyew mu, na na asasewosow ho kyerɛwtohɔ no yɛ dinn koraa. Ɔbotan a ɛsen no kɔɔ so yɛɛ den, na ogyaframa no yɛɛ atare wɔ mfinimfini kwan no ho.[3]

Pico de Fogo (ɔbotan a ɛwɔ hɔ).

2014-15 a ɛpaee[sesa]

  Fogo ogya bepɔw no san yɛɛ adwuma wɔ afe 2014 mu, na efii ase paee wɔ Kwasida anɔpa 10 akyi bere tiaa bi, Obubuo 23, 2014. Na asasewosow dwumadi a ɛkɔ soro nna kakraa bi aba,[8] nanso ɛkɔɔ so sɛee fi Kwasida anadwo anadwo nnɔnwɔtwe.[9]

Nnipa a wɔwɔ Cha das Caldeiras, a wɔn dodow bɛyɛ 1,000 no daa wɔn afie akyi anadwo esiane asasewosow a ano yɛ den no nti,[8] na wofii ase tu fii hɔ bere a ɔtopae no fii ase no. Sɛnea ɛte wɔ 1995 mu no, mfiase no nnipa binom powee sɛ wobegyaw wɔn afie, nanso awiei koraa no, wotiee atumfoɔ no akwankyerɛ.[9]

Bruno Faria, Cape Verdefo a ɔyɛ ogyaframa ho ɔbenfo kae sɛ sɛnea ɔtopae no mu yɛ den sen nea ɛpaee wɔ 1995 mu no, na ɛbɛn nea ɛpaee wɔ 1951 mu, a ɛyɛ nea ɛyɛ den sen biara a wɔayɛ ho kyerɛwtohɔ wɔ supɔw no so pɛn no mu biako.[9] Ɔpaee no mu yɛɛ den wɔ 23 November 2014 akyi. Mprempren asubɔnten bi a ɛyɛ ogyaframa a asɛe adan no koraa akata Portela akuraa a ɛwɔ Cha das Caldeiras ase no so.[10]

Wɔ nnafua 77 dwumadie akyi no, ɔtopaeɛ no gyaee wɔ 8 Ɔgyefoɔ 2015.[11] Na wɔasɛe adan a ɛwɔ Portela, Bangaeira ne Ilhéu de Losna, Cha das Caldeiras afa bi no mu 75%. Ná ogyaframa akata eyinom mu dodow no ara so.[12] Asase ho nimdefoɔ Christophe Neff, kyerɛwee wɔ ne blog mu, berɛ a ɔkɔɔ Cha das Caldeiras wɔ Obubuo 2017 mu akyi no, sɛ wɔresan akyekye atraeɛ a ɛwɔ Cha no rekɔ so, na seesei wɔasan asi ahɔhodan bi na wɔabue ama akwantufoɔ seesei.[13]

Asase ho adesua[sesa]

Pico do Fogo yɛ basanite, tephrite, phonotephrite, clinopyroxene, amphibole, magnetite, olivine, melilite ne leucite.[14] Magma dan titiriw no bɛyɛ kilomita 16–24 mu dɔ, kɔ po no mu na kilomita 10–12 wɔ abon no ase.[14]

Mfonini ahorow[sesa]

Pico do Fogo ne Henrique Teixeira da Sousa wɔ Capeverdean $200 escudo krataa bi mu

Efi afe 2014 no, wɔde bepɔw no ne caldera a atwa ho ahyia no kyerɛe wɔ Capeverdean $200 escudo krataa bi mu . Wɔ ase benkum so no, bobesa bobe a wodua wɔ mpɔtam hɔ na nifa so no Henrique Teixeira de Sousa, supɔw no kuromni, beae bi a wɔwoo beae bi a bepɔw no ka ho.

Nsɛm a wɔde gyinaa so[sesa]

  1. S. F. Jenkins; et al. (20 March 2017). "Damage from lava flows: insights from the 2014–2015 eruption of Fogo, Cape Verde". Journal of Applied Volcanology. 6. doi:10.1186/s13617-017-0057-6.
  2. Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Troll, Valentin R. (2021-01-01). "North-East Atlantic Islands: The Macaronesian Archipelagos". Encyclopedia of Geology (in English). pp. 674–699. doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-102908-4.00027-8. ISBN 9780081029091. S2CID 226588940.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 "Volcano Watch: Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde Islands". Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. April 21, 1995. Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  4. Carracedo, Juan-Carlos; Perez‐Torrado, Francisco J.; Rodriguez‐Gonzalez, Alejandro; Paris, Raphaël; Troll, Valentin R.; Barker, Abigail K. (2015). "Volcanic and structural evolution of Pico do Fogo, Cape Verde". Geology Today (in English). 31 (4): 146–152. doi:10.1111/gto.12101. ISSN 1365-2451. S2CID 128995452.
  5. Brown, Emma (2015). "Island boulders reveal ancient mega-tsunami". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2015.18485. S2CID 182938906. Retrieved 2015-10-06.
  6. S. F. Jenkins; et al. (20 March 2017). "Damage from lava flows: insights from the 2014–2015 eruption of Fogo, Cape Verde". Journal of Applied Volcanology. 6. doi:10.1186/s13617-017-0057-6.
  7. "Fogo Caldera". MTU Volcanoes Page. Michigan Technological University. Retrieved 2007-10-17.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Volcano of Fogo in eruption". Oceanpress.info. 23 November 2014. Archived from the original on 23 November 2014.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Susana Salvador (23 November 2014). "Vulcao do Fogo está em erupçao e obriga a evacuar Cha das Caldeiras" (in Portuguese). Diário de Notícias. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014.
  10. Christophe Neff (10 December 2014). "L'éruption du Pico do Fogo du 23.11.2014 – l'éruption oublie …" (in French). Blogs le Monde on LeMonde.fr.
  11. Christophe Neff (28 April 2015). "retour sur le vieil homme – le Pico do Fogo" (in French). Blogs le Monde on LeMonde.fr.
  12. S. F. Jenkins; et al. (20 March 2017). "Damage from lava flows: insights from the 2014–2015 eruption of Fogo, Cape Verde". Journal of Applied Volcanology. 6. doi:10.1186/s13617-017-0057-6.
  13. Christophe Neff (22 November 2017). "« Lua Nha Testemunha »– souvenir d'un voyage « phytogéographique » aux iles du Cap Vert (Santiago/Fogo) en Novembre 2017" (in French). Blogs le Monde on LeMonde.fr. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Kokfelt, T. A. (1998).