Ɔtɛnmuafo

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Ɔtɛnmuafo(Judge) Audio file "tw-Ɔtɛnmuafo.ogg" not foundNhwɛsoɔ:Category handler gyina ho ma obi a ɔhwɛ asendibea dwumadie so. Ɔhwe di asɛm, bu ho atɛn.

Ɔtɛnmuafo yɛ obi a ɔhwɛ di asɛm wɔ asɛmdibea(presides[1] over court[2]), ɛtumi yɛ onipa baako anaa Atɛnmuuafoɔ nipa kuo bi (panel of judges).[3]Ɔtɛnmuafoɔ tie adansefoɔ (witnesses) no nyinaa ne adanseɛ bi ara ɛka ho(evidence) a alawyerfoɔ ne won a asem no fa won ho de aba asendibea ho a ɛfa asem no ho, Ɔtɛnmuafo tie na wa hyehye nsem a nkuo afafa no nyinaa reka anaa reko ho no(arguments), na ɔhwɛ bua asem anaa nsem a ɔde baa asendibea ho(case) a ɔgyina ɔman no mmra ne ne nteaseɛ so na ma atennie. ɛwɔ sɛ Ɔtɛnmuafo no di asem no finkyem a ntoro ni mu anaa ɔgyina mu ma afa baako(impartially) na enkaka wɔ asendibea a obia wɔho bi (open court).

Ɔtɛnmuafo tumi, n'adwuma, kwan a ɔfaso yi no, ne n'akyerɛkyerɛ nyinaa ka nso wɔ beaɛ bi ara (jurisdictions). wɔ fa baabi no Ɔtenmuafo tumi no ɔne jury na ɛkyɛ. Wɔ inquisitorial systems of criminal investigation, Ɔtɛnmuafo bɛtumi nso ayɛ examining magistrate. Ɔtenmuafo hwɛ sɛ asendibea ho ayɛ pɛpɛɛpɛ na ɔde mmra nso ɛyɛ adwuma.

N'ADWUMA[sesa]

Ɔtɛnmuafo adwuma titiriw pa ara ne sɛ ɔbɛ hwɛ aseisei abanmu nsem ne ntokwa ntokwa wɔ amamerɛ kwan so ne mmra kwan so wɔ nteɛseɛ kwan so wɔ afa anaa akuo mmienu a ntawantawa yi asi won ntɛm yi. Ɔtɛnmuafo tumi no firi aban mu na ɔde yɛ adwuma. Ɔtumi hyɛ Apolisifoɔ, asogyafoɔ sɛ ɔnhwehwɛ,ɔnkyere obi,ɔnfa obi nto afiese ne deɛ ɛkeka ho pii ma won yɛ. Ɔsan nso hwɛ ma semdie kɔ so tɔɔte a ntokwa biara mma na mmra ayɛ adwuma. Asendibea akɛseɛ bi te sɛ Appeals courts ne Supreme courts na won hwɛ seisei Ɔtɛnmuafo tumi a ɔde yɛ adwuma no.[4]

Ɔtɛnmuafo baako tumi yɛ asem kumaa anaa ketiwa bi ho adwuma, nanso wɔ kurɔno bɔ , abusua ne nsem akɛseɛ bi no sie deɛ Atɛnmuafoɔ pii na yɛ ho adwuma. Wɔ asendibea bi nom no Atɛnmuafo kuo nom bi tumi yɛ lay judges. Ɛntesɛ Atɛnmuafo akukudam anaa wɔn a wakɔ Atɛnmuafo ho sukuu no,[5] lay judges yɛ won a yɛ anfa mmra kwan so na tete won naso ɛntesɛ jurors, lay judges yɛ atuhoakyɛ adwuma a amanwnyɔfoɔ na yi wɔn. Mpen pii no law clerks, referendaries na boa Atɛnmuafoɔ no wɔ mmra kwan so nsem mu na ɛba ahobanbɔ kwan so nso a bailiffs foɔ aboa wɔn.

NEA ƐHYE WƆN NSO WƆ ADWUMA MU[sesa]

17th century Spanish judge in full gowns, by Velázquez.

Amamere ne Amaneɛ pii na abɛ bata nwuma ho wɔ ɛne yi. Gavels (a ceremonial hammer) a Atɛnmuafoɔ ɛwɔ aman pii so na ɔde yw adwuma, a mpo akɔ ba sɛ gavel yi na ada ne ahyensodeɛ de ama Atenmuafoɔ. Wɔ amam pii so wɔ wiase afanaa nyinaa so no Atɛnmuafoɔ hyeɛ ntaade tenten (long robes) a mpɛn pii ɛyɛ kɔkɔɔ anaa tumtum (often in black or red) na wasane nso atene beaɛ tenten anaa soro wɔ asendibea dan mu de ada asem(known as the bench).

Amerikafoɔ Atɛnmuafoɔ na taa hyɛ ataade tenten tumtum no(black robes). Amerika atɛnmuafo wɔ afahye gavels (ceremonial gavels),Nso wɔ aman afoforo wɔ Western United States, te sɛ California no, na atɛnmuafoɔ no nhyɛ ataade tenten no (robes) na na ɔhye wɔn daa ne daa ataadeɛ. Ɛne yi nipa kuo a wowɔ state supreme courts, te sɛ Maryland Court of Appeals hye ntaade a ɛdanso. Wɔ Italy ne Portugal man mu no, atɛnmuafoɔ ne alawyerfoɔ nyinaa hye ataade tenten tumtum no bi(black robes).

Wɔ aman bi so no, ɛnkan ka wɔ Commonwealth of Nations, atɛnmuafo hyɛ wigs. Na kanee no atɛnmuafoɔ hyɛ wig tenten no wɔ afahyɛ mmere so. Wig atiatia a ɛte sɛ nanso ɛnsɛ barrister's wig (a Bench Wig) a wɔhyɛ wɔ asendibea. Saa amamere yi etwam wɔ Britain wɔ non-criminal courts.[6]

Oman, Atɛnmuafo hyɛ stripe tenten(long stripe) a ɛyɛ kɔkɔɔ, fitaa ne ahaban mono (red, green white), wɔ berɛ a attorneys no na hyɛ gɔwn tumtum no(black gown).

BEAƐ A MENYAA MMOA FIRI YƐ[sesa]

http://www.uscourts.gov/judges-judgeships/judicial-compensation

https://web.archive.org/web/20170930131934/https://www.thebalance.com/judge-job-description-career-profile-2164303

  1. http://www.dipionline.it/dizionario/ricerca?lemma=preside
  2. https://archive.org/details/oxfordcompaniont0000walk
  3. https://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4682&context=clr
  4. http://www.uscourts.gov/judges-judgeships/judicial-compensation
  5. https://web.archive.org/web/20170930131934/https://www.thebalance.com/judge-job-description-career-profile-2164303
  6. "Hosted.ap.org". Archived from the original on 2021-04-28. Retrieved 2007-07-12.