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Timbuktu na ɔkyerɛwee

Ɛfi Wikipedia
Wɔakyerɛw nsɛm yi wɔ Akuapem kasa mu

Timbuktu ( /ˌ t ɪ m b ʌ k ˈ t uː / TIM -buk- TOO ; French kasa mu  ; Tuareg  ; Koyra Chiini : Tumbutu ) yɛ kurow bi a ɛwɔ Mali, a ɛwɔ twenty kilometres (12 mi) Niger Asubɔnten no atifi fam . Kurow no yɛ Tombouctou Mantam a ɛyɛ Mali mantam awotwe a wɔhwɛ so no mu biako ahenkurow . Na nnipa dodow yɛ 54,453 wɔ afe 2009 nnipakan mu.

Timbuktu fii ase sɛ mmere mu atrae na ɛbɛyɛɛ atrae a ɛtra hɔ daa wɔ afeha a ɛto so 12 mfiase. Bere a nsakrae baa aguadi akwan mu akyi, titiriw wɔ Mansa Musa nsrahwɛ no akyi bɛyɛ afe 1325 no, Timbuktu nyaa nkɔso fii nkyene, sika kɔkɔɔ, asonse ne nkoa aguadi mu. Ɛtrɛwee nkakrankakra sɛ Nkramofo kurow a ɛho hia wɔ Sahara aguadi kwan so na ɛtwee nhomanimfo ne aguadifo pii. Ɛbɛyɛɛ Mali Ahemman no fa wɔ afeha a ɛto so 14 mfiase. Wɔ afeha a ɛto so 15 no fa a edi kan mu no, Tuaregfo no dii kurow no so bere tiaa bi kosii sɛ Songhai Ahemman a na ɛretrɛw no gyee kurow no wɔ 1468 mu. Morocco asraafo dɔm bi dii Songhaifo so nkonim wɔ 1591 mu na wɔde Timbuktu yɛɛ wɔn ahenkurow, sen sɛ wɔbɛyɛ Gao . Ntuafo no hyehyɛɛ sodifo kuw foforo, Arma, a ɛkame ayɛ sɛ wɔde wɔn ho fii Morocco ho wɔ 1612 akyi. Kurow no sika bere, sɛ Mali Ahemman no adesua ne amammerɛ beae titiriw no, aba awiei na ɛhyɛn bere tenten a ɛrekɔ fam mu. Mmusuakuw ahorow dii tumi kosii sɛ Fransefo bedii tumi wɔ 1893 mu, tebea a ɛkɔɔ so kosii sɛ ɛbɛyɛɛ Republic of Mali fa wɔ 1960 mu. Timbuktu di hia na ɛhu amane wɔ anhweatam so .

Asase ho nsɛm[sesa]

Timbuktu wɔ Sahara anafo fam ano  wɔ Asubɔnten Niger no kwan titiriw no atifi fam. Anhwea atwa kurow no ho ahyia na anhwea akata mmɔnten so. Kabara hyɛn gyinabea no yɛ 8 km (5. 100). mi) wɔ kurow no anafo fam na ɛnam asubɔnten no basa bi so denam 3 km (2. 100). mi) nsuo a ɛkɔ nsuo mu. Na asubɔnten no mu ayɛ fĩ kɛse nanso wɔ afe 2007 mu no, wotutuu mu sɛ adwuma bi a Libya de sika boae no fa.[1]

Sikasɛm[sesa]

Na Timbuktu ahonyade ne ne asetra ankasa gyina gyinabea a ɛwɔ sɛ aguadi kwan titiriw bi a ɛfa Sahara so no kesee fam awiei so; nnɛyi nneɛma a wɔtaa fa fa sare so nkutoo ne abotan nkyene a wɔde fi Taoudenni beae a wotu fagude wɔ Sahara mfinimfini no bae 664 km (413) na ɛwɔ hɔ mi) Timbuktu atifi fam. Ɛde besi afeha a ɛto so 20 no fa a ɛto so abien no, na nkyene akwantufo akɛse anaa azalai, na wɔde abopon no mu dodow no ara fa, na biako fi Timbuktu wɔ November mfiase na biako nso fi March awiei. [29]

Kuadwuma[sesa]

Osu ntɔ wɔ Timbuktu mantam mu ma kuayɛ a osu tɔ nkutoo na ɛyɛ na enti wɔde nsu a efi Asubɔnten Niger mu gugu nnɔbae so. Kuadwuma mu nnɔbae titiriw ne aburow. Wɔadua Afrika aburow a ɛsensɛn nsu so ( Oryza glaberrima ) fi tete wɔ mmeae a ɛbɛn asubɔnten no a nsu yiri fa hɔ wɔ afe afe nsuyiri no mu. Wodua aba wɔ osutɔ bere mfiase (June–July) sɛnea ɛbɛyɛ a sɛ nsuyiri no ba a, afifide yɛ 30 to 40 dedaw wɔ ne sorokɔ mu.[2]

Nsrahwɛ[sesa]

Nsrahwɛfo dodow no ara kɔ Timbuktu wɔ November ne February ntam bere a mframa mu hyew sua no. Wɔ 1980 mfeɛ no mu no, Hendrina Khan Hotel ne ahɔhodan nketewa mmienu foforɔ na ɛmaa nsrahwɛfoɔ dabere: Hotel Bouctou ne Hotel Azalaï.[3] Wɔ mfe du du a edi hɔ no mu no, nsrahwɛfo dodow kɔɔ soro ma enti ebeduu afe 2006 no, na ahɔhodan nketewa ne ahɔhodan ahorow ason wɔ hɔ.[4] Kurow no nyaa sika a wonya fii CFA mu no so mfaso 5000 nsrahwɛfo tow,[4] nsaanodwuma a wɔtɔn ne mpɔtam hɔ akwankyerɛfo a wɔde wɔn yɛ adwuma.

Adwinni ne amammerɛ[sesa]

Wɔyɛ Mawloud afahyɛ a ɛkyɛ dapɛn biako no January biara, na wodi Muhammed awoda; wɔkenkan kurow no mu "nsaano nkyerɛwee a wɔpɛ sen biara" wɔ baguam, na ɛyɛ afahyɛ yi fa titiriw. [64] Mfitiaseɛ no na ɛyɛ Shi’itefoɔ afahyɛ a ɛfiri Persia na ɛduruu Timbuktu bɛyɛ afe 1600. "Anigye bere a ɛsen biara wɔ Timbuktu kalenda so", ɛka "Sufi Islam amanne ahorow ne Timbuktu nhoma atetesɛm a ɛyɛ fɛ no ho afahyɛ" bom. [65] Ɛyɛ "bere a wɔde di apontow, nnwom, ne asaw." . . . Ɛbaa awiei denam nnipa mpempem pii a wɔboaboaa wɔn ho ano anwummere wɔ anhwea abɔnten kɛse a ɛwɔ Sankor é Asɔredan no anim ne kurow no mu nsaano nkyerɛwee a ɛsom bo sen biara no bi a wɔkenkanee wɔ baguam no so."

Wiase Agyapade Beae[sesa]

Wɔ ne nhyiam a ɛto so dumien mu, wɔ December 1988 mu no, Wiase Agyapade Boayikuw (WHC) paw Timbuktu abakɔsɛm mu beae no afa horow sɛ wɔmfa nkyerɛw wɔn Wiase Agyapade din mu .[5] Wɔpaw no gyinaa nneɛma abiɛsa so :

Nsɛm a wɔde gyinaa so[sesa]

  1. Développement régional: le fleuve est de rétour à Tombouctou, Présidence de la République du Mali, 3 December 2007, archived from the original on 1 October 2011, retrieved 19 March 2011
  2. Thom (1987), "Farming Systems in the Niger Inland Delta, Mali", Geographical Review, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 328–342, doi:10.2307/214124, JSTOR 214124
  3. Sayah (3 October 2011), Tombouctou : le tourisme en desherence (in French), L'Essor, retrieved 28 November 2011
  4. 4.0 4.1 Schéma Directeur d'Urbanisme de la Ville de Tombouctou et Environs (PDF) (in French), Bamako, Mali: Ministère de l'Habitat et de l'Urbanisme, République du Mali, 2006, archived from the original (PDF) on 28 April 2011
  5. "Report of the World Heritage Committee Twelfth Session", Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, Brasilia: UNESCO, 1988