Pandemic

From Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Sɛ yɛ ka sɛ yareɛ bi yɛ pandemic a n’ase kyerɛ ne sɛ, yareɛ no atrɛ kɔ amanaman pii so na yareɛ no nso aka nnipa bebree. Epidemic nso kyerɛ yareɛ a aka nnipa bebree wo mmere tia bi mu wo mantɛm anaa kuro baako mu.[1] Endemic ne pandemic edi nsɛ kakra wo kwan a ɛfa so trɛ. Nanso endemic ɛntrɛ nkɔ nnipa bebree so. Nfato ho ne influenza a ɛtumi pagya ne ho so wo aman bebree mu nanso ɛntrɛ nfa wiase nyinaa mu.

Asekyerɛ ne yarɛe ahyɛnsodeɛ wo gyina pɛn bi mu[edit]

Pandemic ano yɛ den na ɛtwa aman ahyeɛ so kɔ amanaman.[2] Na mmom ɛwose yɛ hyɛ no nso sɛ, pandemic nso yɛ yareɛ a ɛsae. Kokoram yareɛ aku nnipa bebree nanso ɛnyɛ pandemic efisɛ, ɛnsae afoforo.

Yareɛ mu animdefoɔ ahu pandemic suban wo mmere biara mu. Nfoni a ɛda fam no da no adi.[3]

20200403 Flatten the curve animated GIF.gif

Wɔ gyinapɛn a edi kan no, yareɛ no fi ase daa ne ho adi nan nipa kakra bi pɛ na anya bi.

Wɔ gyinapɛn a ɛtɔ so mmienu no, yareɛ no fi ase sɛ ɛtrɛ wo nnipa kuo bi mu.[4] Wɔ saa mmere yi mu no, yareɛ no ahuoden ma ne mu so wo nnipa no mu.

Wɔ gyinapɛn a ɛtɔ so mmiensa no, yareɛ no ano ba fam koraa na yareɛ no ntrɛ nkɔ nnipa foforo so biom.

Kwan a yɛ bɛ fa so akurakura yareɛ no mu[edit]

Akwan bebree wo ho a aman betumi afa to de akurakura yareɛ yi mu. Wo afe 2005 no, wiase dwuma kuo a ɛhwɛ apomuden so gyee mmra nkrataa a ɛkyerɛ kwan a wonfa so de mmo nnipa ho ban fi yareɛ mu too mu.[5] Biom nso, saa dwuma kuo yi ara san de nhoma a ɛkyerɛ kwan a wonfa so de nso influenza yareɛ mu. Wo de saa nhoma yi baa afe 1999 na wo sakyeraa mu afe 2005 ne 2009.[5] Mprenpren yi, kwan a yɛ de ko Covid-19 yareɛ no firi saa nhoma yi mu.

Nkomo bebree akɔso afa kwan a aman bɛ fa so de asɔ amanfuo ahwɛ, asa amanfuo yareɛ na afei kwan wode won ani bedi amanfuo akyi. Saa kwan yi bɛ boa ama won atumi ate nnipa a woyare na aboa ama won aya ayare hwɛ. Saa kwan pa yi na South Korea ne Singapore faa so. ɛwo mu sɛ na won ayɛ ahoboa esan SARS yareɛ a ɛba won so nfie bi a atwa mu.

Yɛɛ ma kwan ada yɛn ne afoforo ntɛm yɛ amansan apomuden nsɛm mu nhyehyɛe a ɛboa ma yɛ de te yareɛ no amirika so. ɛboa ma yɛ te nnipa a wo yare fi nnipa a wonni yareɛ no bi.


Mpanyinfoɔ no mu baako a ɔwɔ dwuma kuo a ɛhwɛ wiase apomuden a wofrɛ no Dr Michael J Ryan wo nsɛm kyerɛfoɔ nkitahodie so a oyɛɛ no wɔ obenim bosome afe 2019, kaa sɛ yɛɛ ma kwan ada yɛn ne afoforo ntɛm yɛ mmere tiaa kwan a yɛ betumi de abrɛ yareɛ no amirika ase na yɛn nfa ohaw bebree nto yen ayaresabea so.[6] Osan tii mu biom sɛ yɛɛ ma kwan ada yɛn ne afoforo ntɛm no nkoaa ntumi ntu yareɛ no ase korakora.

Yareɛ akeseɛ a ɛsai a mprenpren yi ɛda so wo ho[edit]

HIV/AIDS[edit]

Wo afe 2018 mu no na nnipa bɛ yɛ 37.9 million na na aya HIV mmoawa yareɛ no wo wiase nyinaa.[7] Saa afe no mu ara, nnipa bɛ yɛ 770,000 na ɛfirii mu wo yareɛ yi ho.[8] Mprenpren yi, yareɛ yi ate atese paa wo abibiman krom sen kuro biaa so. Na wo su su sɛ nnipa foforo a onya yareɛ yi bi yɛ oha nkyekyɛ mu aduosia baako.[7]

Coronaviruses[edit]

Corona yareɛ mmoawa yɛ mmoawa abusua kuo kakraka a wode yareɛ pii ɛba. Pɛpun ne yareɛ nom bi te sɛ Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute  Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV) yɛ yareɛ saa mmoawa yi tumi de ba. Mmoawa no bi na ɛde coronavirus ɛba. Saa mmoawa yi tumi fi mmoa mu ba nnipa mu. Nhwehwɛ mu kyerɛ sɛ, SARS-CoV fi mmoa bi a wone  okra anaa agyinamoa bɔ abusua na ɛtrɛ baa nnipa mu.[9] MERS-CoV nso fi afunumu na ɛtrɛ baa nnipa mu. Corona mmoawa yi bebree wo mmoa mu a ɛnya ntrɛ mmaa nnipa mu.

Corona mmoawa foforo koraa da ne ho adi wo Wuhan, a eyɛ kuro wɔ China man mu wɔ ɔpenimaa bosome mu afe 2019[10]. Wɔn a won aya yareɛ no bi ya ɔhaw wɔ won ahwrawa ne won homee mu. John Hopkins suapon[11] da no adi sɛ aman bɛyɛ oha mmienu (200) na corona mmoawa yareɛ no ada ne ho adi wo ho. Aman a yareɛ no ano yɛ den wo ho no bi ne United States, China, Europe ne Iran.[12] [13] [14]Wo obenim bosome da a ɛtɔ so du-baako afe 2020 mu no, dwuma kuo a ɛhwɛ wiase apomuden ho daa no adi sɛ yareɛ yi tumi sae nnipa bebree. Wo Oforisuo da a ɛtɔ so aduonu-mmiensa, afe 2020 mu no na nnipa bɛ yɛ 2.63 million na aya yareɛ wo wiase nyinaa mu. Won a wonfiri mu bɛyɛ 184,249 na won a won ho atɔ won no nso bɛyɛ 722,055.[15]

Yareɛ atitiriw a ɛdaa ne ho adi wo mmere bi mu[edit]

Atiriidii[edit]

Atiridii yareɛ tumi te atese wo abibi man, America ne Asia man mu. Afe biara mu no, nnipa bɛyɛ 350 million kosi 500 million na etumi nya yareɛ no[16]. ɔhaw a ɛwɔ atiridii ho ne sɛ eduru mmere bi a, ɛho aduro no ntumi nko atiridii mmoawa no. Artemisinins nkoa na etumi ku atiridii mmoawa no.[17]

Kane no, na atiridii adore aburokyi man mu nanso nne mmere yi mu n’ase atu koraa wo saa man no mu.[18] Abakosem kyerɛ sɛ, atiridii ka ho na Roman aman buo baa awieyɛ.[19] Atiridii mmoawa no anni no yiye koraa wɔ mmrofo a woba abibiman mu tete mmere mu no.[20]

Spanish Flu[edit]

Nnipa bɛyɛ 500 million na Spanish flu nyaa won.[21] Yareɛ no kum nnipa firi 20million kosi 100 million. [22]Yareɛ no kuu mmofra ne mpanyinfoɔ paa sene mmeranteɛ ne mmabaawa. Yareɛ yi kuu nnipa pii wo wiase nyiina ntɔkwa keseɛ edi kan no.[23] Na esan nso kuu nnipa pii wo nnaawotwe aduonu-nnum ntɛm sen senea HIV yareɛ kuu nnipa wo afe aduonu-nnum ntɛm.[24] [25] Tebea a na ɛwɔ oko ano no te sɛ ɔbrɛ, ɛkom ne nneɛma a ɛkeka ho no maa yareɛ no tu atese ntɛm.[26] Akwantufoɔ ne asraafoɔ akoneaba die maa yareɛ no trɛɛ yɛ kɔɔ aman pii so.[27]

Dadwene a animdefoɔ wɔ fa mmoawa yi ho[edit]

Aduro a ɛntumi nku yareɛ mmoa[edit]

Yareɛ mmoawa bi wɔ ho a, wotumi sore tia n’ano aduro. Saa mmoawa a ɛte saa yi ma yareɛ bi tumi san ma ne mu ho so wo nnipa mu. Nfatoho ne a nsaman-wa a etumi sore tia nnuro bi.[28] Saa tebea yi yɛ asɛm hia ma apomuden mu adwumayɛfoɔ. Afe biara mu no nsaman-wa a aduro ntumi no ma ne mu so wo wiase mu. Wiase apomuden dwuma kuo kyerɛ sɛ nnipa bɛyɛ 50 million na enya nsaman wa yi a aduro ntumi no. Nsaman wa yi a ne suban te saa no da ne ho adi wo abibiman mu wo afe 2006 na eno akyi no, edaa ne ho adi wo aman aduonan-nkron mu. USA ka saa aman no ho.

Bɛ yɛ mfie a aduonu a atwa mu yi, yareɛ mmoawa bi te sɛ Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens ne Enterococcus anya ahuoden a etumi ma won sore tia nnuro bi te sɛ vancomycin, aminoglycosides ne cephalosporins.

Viral hemorrhagic fevers[edit]

Viral hemorrhagic fevers yɛ yareɛ a ɛyɛ hu. Yareɛ a ɛwɔ saa abusua kuo yi mu bi ne Ebola virus disease, Lassa fever, Rift Valley fever, Marburg virus disease ne Bolivian hemorrhagic fever. Saa yareɛ yi bɛ tumi asae nnipa bebree na atrɛ akɔ aman pii so. Nnipa a wonya yareɛ yi bi wu ntɛm. ɛsane sɛɛ mmere a ɛda mmere a onipa bi be nya bi ne mmere a odi bɛ firi mu no sua nti won a woyɛ adwuma wo ayaresabea no tumi te saa yarefoɔ yi fi nnipa a wonyare ne ho. Wei boa ma yareɛ mmoawa no nterɛ nko nnipa foforo so.

Zika virus[edit]

Zika virus da ne ho adi wo afe 2015 mu. Na afe 2016 mu no, ɛmaa ne mu so paa. Eyi maa nnipa bɛ yɛ 1.5million nyaa yareɛ yi bi wo America. Wiase apomuden dwuma kuo tu fo sɛ Zika virus yi ho yɛ hu na ɛbetumi atrɛ afa wiase nyinaa mu.

References[edit]

  1. Principles of Epidemiology, Third Edition (PDF). Atlanta, Georgia: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2012.
  2. Porta, Miquel, ed. (2008). Dictionary of Epidemiology. Oxford University Press. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-19-531449-6. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  3. A. M., Dumar (2009). Swine Flu: What You Need to Know. Wildside Press LLC. p. 7. ISBN 978-1434458322.
  4. Wiles S. The three phases of Covid-19 and how we can make it manageable. TheSpinoff. Available at: https://thespinoff.co.nz/society/09-03-2020/the-three-phases-of-covid-19-and-how-we-can-make-it-manageable. Accessed on 10 April 2020
  5. 5.0 5.1 See: https://www.who.int/ihr/publications/9789241580496/en
  6. World Health Organisation March press briefing on Coronavirus , Reuters, 2020https://www.pscp.tv/w/1OdJrqYMXMXGX?t=49m58s
  7. 7.0 7.1 Fact Sheet (PDF). UNAIDS.org. 2018. Retrieved 12 December 2019.
  8. "UN AIDS DATA2019". UNAIDS.org. 2019. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
  9. Megan McArdle closeMegan. "Opinion | When a danger is growing exponentially, everything looks fine until it doesn't". Washington Post. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  10. "WHO Statement Regarding Cluster of Pneumonia Cases in Wuhan, China". WHO. 31 December 2019. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  11. COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU), accessed April 23rd 2020
  12. "Covid-19 Coronavirus Pandemic (Live statistics)". Worldometer. 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  13. "WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19—11 March 2020". WHO. 11 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  14. "Coronavirus confirmed as pandemic". BBC News. 11 March 2020. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
  15. "Covid-19 Coronavirus Pandemic". Worldometer.
  16. "Malaria Facts". Archived from the original on 29 December 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
  17. White, NJ (April 2004). "Antimalarial drug resistance". J. Clin. Invest. 113 (8): 1084–1092. doi:10.1172/JCI21682. PMC 385418. PMID 15085184.
  18. Vector- and Rodent-Borne Diseases in Europe and North America. Norman G. Gratz. World Health Organization, Geneva.
  19. DNA clues to malaria in ancient Rome. BBC News. 20 February 2001.
  20. "Malaria and Rome" Archived 11 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Robert Sallares. ABC.net.au. 29 January 2003.
  21. Taubenberger JK, Morens DM (January 2006). "1918 Influenza: the mother of all pandemics". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 12 (1): 15–22. doi:10.3201/eid1201.050979. PMC 3291398. PMID 16494711. Archived from the original on 1 October 2009. Retrieved 7 September 2017
  22. "Historical Estimates of World Population". Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  23. Gagnon A, Miller MS, Hallman SA, Bourbeau R, Herring DA, Earn DJ, Madrenas J (2013). "Age-Specific Mortality During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic: Unravelling the Mystery of High Young Adult Mortality". PLOS One. 8 (8): e69586. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...869586G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069586. PMC 3734171. PMID 23940526.
  24. "The 1918 Influenza Pandemic". virus.stanford.edu.
  25. Spanish flu facts by Channel 4 News
  26. Qureshi, Adnan I. (2016). Ebola Virus Disease: From Origin to Outbreak. Academic Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0128042427.
  27. Spanish flu strikes during World War I, 14 January 2010
  28. Researchers sound the alarm: the multidrug resistance of the plague bacillus could spread Archived 14 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Pasteur.fr