Nsamanwa

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Kyerɛ Twi kasa a atwerɛsɛm yi ɛwɔ mu. Kasa ahorow a wobɛtumi akyerɛ ɛne: Akuapem, Asante, Fante.
Depiction of a tuberculosis patient.png

Nsamanwa yɛ yareɛ ɛfiri sɛ Mycobacterium tuberculosis mmoawammoawa nketenkete a wɔde yareɛ brɛ nnipa.[1] Ɛfa ne nyinaa ho bɔ ahrawa mmienu, deɛ ɛbɛtumi asi nso bɔ biribi foforɔ. Nsɛnkyerɛnneɛ yɛ koankorɔ ɛwa ne moɡya ahorɔ, atiridii, anadwo mfifire.

Nsamanwa a yɛsane frɛ no pertussis anaasɛ ɛwa a yɛbɔ kɔsi nna ɔha yɛ yareɛ bi a mmoawammoawa bi reba a ɛtumi san nnipa.[2] Nsɛnkyerɛnne a ɛdeba no ne wɔn a wɔnya kataa a wɔn hwene sɔ nsuo, wɔbɔ wa kakra reyɛ ayɛ pɛ nanso wie no deɛ wobɔ wa denden bɛyɛ nnawɔtwe bi.[2] Sɛ nnipa no bɔ wa ahoɔden so na sɛ ɔhome a wote ɛne kɛseɛ bi wɔ akyire[2] Ɛwa no bɛtumi adi bɛyɛ nna du anaa bɛboro nnwɔtwe, sɛdeɛ kasatɔmmɛ no kyerɛ no sɛ "nna ɔha wa". [3] Obi bɛtumi abɔ wa dendenden so ama no afe, ne mfempadeɛ ayɛ no ya anaasɛ ɔbrɛ ɛnam ahoɔden a ɔde bɔ wa no.[1][2] Mmɔfra a wɔnni mfeɛ baako nso bɛtumi abɔ wa kakra anaasɛ wɔmmɔ bi koraa na ɛtɔ mmerɛ bi a wɔntumi nhome.[1]Ɛfiri mmerɛ a obi bɛnya saa yareɛ no ne nsɛnkyerɛnne no yɛ bɛyɛ sɛ nna nson dekɔ nna du.[1] Yareɛ no bɛtumi aba nnipa a wawɔ wɔn saa yareɛ no paneɛ no bi , nanso nsunsuansoɔ no yɛ kakrabi.[1] Nea ɛde Pertussis ba yɛ mmoawammoawa bi a yɛfrɛ wɔn Bordetella pertussis.[4] Ɛnam ɛwa no ne nwensi a obi a wanya saa yareɛ no bi wensi no nti ɛma no trɛ kɔ akyire.[4][5] Ɛsan nkrɔfoɔ firi nsɛnkyerɛnne no ahyɛaseɛ kɔpem nnawɔtwe mmiɛnsa a wɔbɔ wa no.[6] Wɔn yɛde Antibiotics ma wɔn no deɛ yareɛ no mma wɔn so bio ɛfiri nna num akyire no.[6] Wɔgye wɔn hwene akyi ne wɔn mene mu de yɛ nhwehwɛmu.[7] Wɔde nea wanya no yɛ nhwehwɛmu, ebia amammerɛ kwan so anaa polymerase chain reaction.[7] Kwan a wɔfa so si saa yareɛ no kwan yɛ sɛ wobɛwɔ pertussis paneɛ no.[8] Wɔwɔ wɔn a wadi mfeɛ nsia ne nnwɔtwe ntam no anom, wɔma wɔnom nnuro no nan bɛyɛ mfeɛ mmienu.[9] Ahobanbɔ a ɛfa pertussis no so te, enti wɔsane ma mmɔfra ne mpanimfoɔ no wɔ paneɛ no bio.[10] Sɛ obi yem na sɛ ɔwɔ paneɛ no bi a ɛbɔ abɔfra no ho ban firi pertussis ɛfiri ne bosome ahyɛaseɛ no, na aman ahodoɔ pii agye atom de ma wɔn.[11] Wɔbɛtumi de Antibiotics asi wɔn a yareɛ no bɛn wɔn no kwan.[12] Wɔn a yareɛ no wɔ wɔn so no, Antibiotics no bɛtumi ayɛ adwuma sɛ obi a wanya nsɛnkyernne no nom no bɛyɛ nnawɔtwe mmiɛnsa a, nanso ɛnya nsunsuansoɔ kakra wɔ nnipa pii so.[13]Wɔ apemfoɔ ne mmɔfra a wɔnni mfeɛ baako mu no, sɛ wɔhunu nsɛnkyerɛnne wɔ wɔn ho bɛyɛ nnawɔtwe nsia a wɔma wɔn antibiotics.[13]Antibiotics a wɔde ma wɔn no bi ne include erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, anaasɛ trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.[13] Sɛ wannya antibiotics a adanseɛ a wɔde bɛsi ɛwa no kwan nyɛ koraa.[14] Mmɔfra bɛyɛ ɔhamu nkyekyɛmu aduonum a wɔnni mfeɛ baako a wanya yareɛ no bi no wɔde wɔn kɔ ayaresabea na ɛmu 0.5%(1in200) ɔwu.[1][2] Wɔ wiase afanan nyinaa nnipa bɛyɛ ɔpepem du nsia ne akyire mmiɛnsa na yareɛ no kyee wɔn wɔ mfeɛ mpem mmienu ne du num nom.[15] Saa ɔhaw no bi sisi wɔ aman a atu mpɔn, na nnipa no nyinaa tumi nya bi. [16]Wɔ mfeɛ mpem mmienu ne du num no mu no, pertussis maa nnipa bɛyɛ mpem aduonum nnwɔtwe ne ahannson - na ɛte baa fam kɔɔ mpem ɔha ne aduasa nnwɔtwe wɔ afe apem ahankron ne aduokron mu.[17] Yareɛ no dii kan tee atese wɔ 16th century. [18]Wɔhunuu mmoawammoawa a ɛde saa yareɛ wɔ afe apem ahankron ne nsia nom.[18] Wɔnyaa pertussis paneɛ no wɔ afe apem ahankron ne aduanan.[18]

Nsɛnkyerɛnne[sesa]

Pertussis nsɛnkyerɛnne ne Paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whoop, tware anaasɛ sɛ wobɔ wa wie a wofe.[19] Ɛwa a ɛfiri pertussis no tumi de subconjunctival hemorrhages, rib fractures, urinary incontinence, hernias, ne vertebral artery dissection ba.[19] Ɛwa ma pleura no sɛe, a ɛma wɔnya pneumothorax. Sɛ wobɔ wa wie na sɛ wofe a ɛgyegye sɛ ɛwa, yareɛ no tumi yɛ sɛ pertussis. Sɛ paroxysmal cough or posttussive emesis nni hɔ a ɛma no yɛ ɛfa.[19] Yareɛ no hyɛ aseɛ nkakrankakra firi ahrawa nsɛnkyerɛnne bi te sɛ ɛwa nketenkete, wensi, anaasɛ wohwene mu sɔ nsuo(a yɛfrɛ no kataa). Sɛ nnawɔtwe baako anaa mmienu twa mu a na ɛwa no aduru mpɔnpɔnsoɔ a yɛntumi nsi ano, ɛtɔ mmerɛ bi a ɛkɔ soro 'whoop' ma no gyegye, sɛ nnipa no pɛsɛ ɔhome a. Mmɔfra ne mpanimfoɔ bɛyɛ ɔhamu nkyekyɛmu aduonum na ɛbɔ wa wɔ berɛ a wɔyɛ nhwehwɛmu fa pertussis ho wɔ Paroxysmal agyinapɛn so. Saa agyinapɛn yi tumi di bɛyɛ nnawɔtwe mmienu dekɔ ne nnwɔtwe so, anaasɛ ɛtɔ da a ɛkyɛ. Ɛtumi kɔ nkakrankakra saa kɔpem ahosan mmerɛ, a ɛno nso tumi di bɛyɛ nnawɔtwe baako dekɔ na nan soɔ. Saa agyinapɛn yi ma Paroxysmal wa no so te, Pertussis akyire no, sɛ Paroxysmal ba ɛma wonya ahrawa mu haw bosome pii.[20] Pertussis nsɛnkyerɛnne no da nso, ne titire wɔ wɔn a wanom aduro ne wɔn a wɔnnomm. Wɔn a wanom no deɛ yareɛ no ntumi ntena wɔn so nkyɛ; wɔbɛtumi anya Paroxysmal wa bɛyɛ nnawɔtwe bi, na wɔnya ɛwa denden no su no bi.[21] Ɛwɔm sɛ wɔn a wanom aduro no bi no nya yareɛ no a ano nyɛ den deɛ, wɔbɛtumi de asan wɔn a wɔnnom aduro no bi.[21]

Beaeɛ a menyaa mmoa firiiɛ[sesa]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/tuberculosis
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 https://www.cdc.gov/pertussis/about/signs-symptoms.html
  3. https://www.cdc.gov/pertussis/fast-facts.html
  4. 4.0 4.1 https://www.cdc.gov/pertussis/about/causes-transmission.html
  5. https://web.archive.org/web/20150605222708/http://www.who.int/ith/diseases/pertussis/en/
  6. 6.0 6.1 https://www.cdc.gov/pertussis/clinical/treatment.html
  7. 7.0 7.1 https://www.cdc.gov/pertussis/clinical/diagnostic-testing/specimen-collection.html
  8. Heininger U (February 2010). "Update on pertussis in children". Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy. 8 (2): 163–73. doi:10.1586/eri.09.124. PMID 20109046. S2CID 207217558.
  9. https://www.who.int/wer/2013/wer8930.pdf?ua=1
  10. Pertussis vaccines: WHO position paper". Relevé Épidémiologique Hebdomadaire. 85 (40): 385–400. October 2010. PMID 20939150.
  11. Vygen-Bonnet S, Hellenbrand W, Garbe E, von Kries R, Bogdan C, Heininger U, Röbl-Mathieu M, Harder T (February 2020). "Safety and effectiveness of acellular pertussis vaccination during pregnancy: a systematic review". BMC Infect Dis. 20 (1): 136. doi:10.1186/s12879-020-4824-3. PMC 7020352. PMID 32054444.
  12. https://www.cdc.gov/pertussis/clinical/prevention.html
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 https://www.cdc.gov/pertussis/clinical/treatment.html
  14. Wang K, Bettiol S, Thompson MJ, Roberts NW, Perera R, Heneghan CJ, Harnden A (September 2014). "Symptomatic treatment of the cough in whooping cough". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9 (9): CD003257. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003257.pub5. PMC 7154224. PMID 25243777.
  15. os, Theo; Allen, Christine; Arora, Megha; Barber, Ryan M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Brown, Alexandria; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chen, Alan Z.; Coggeshall, Megan; Cornaby, Leslie; Dandona, Lalit; Dicker, Daniel J.; Dilegge, Tina; Erskine, Holly E.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Fleming, Tom; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Graetz, Nicholas; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Hay, Simon I.; Johnson, Catherine O.; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Kawashima, Toana; et al. (October 2016). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545–1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. PMC 5055577. PMID 27733282.
  16. Wang K, Bettiol S, Thompson MJ, Roberts NW, Perera R, Heneghan CJ, Harnden A (September 2014). "Symptomatic treatment of the cough in whooping cough". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9 (9): CD003257. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003257.pub5. PMC 7154224. PMID 25243777.
  17. Wang, Haidong; Naghavi, Mohsen; Allen, Christine; Barber, Ryan M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chen, Alan Zian; Coates, Matthew M.; Coggeshall, Megan; Dandona, Lalit; Dicker, Daniel J.; Erskine, Holly E.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fraser, Maya S.; Fullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Graetz, Nicholas; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Hay, Simon I.; Huynh, Chantal; Johnson, Catherine O.; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Kinfu, Yohannes; et al. (October 2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459–1544. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(16)31012-1. PMC 5388903. PMID 27733281.
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/pert.html
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 https://semanticscholar.org/paper/29c77e6aa3019781334536bd7ce45988acf1b0d0
  20. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/pert.html
  21. 21.0 21.1 Nguyen, Van Tuong Ngoc; Simon, Lauren (1 September 2018). "Pertussis: The Whooping Cough". Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice. Infectious Disease. 45 (3): 423–431. doi:10.1016/j.pop.2018.05.003. ISSN 0095-4543. PMID 30115332.