Nnipa ahoɔden

Ɛfi Wikipedia

Nnipa ahoɔden (HR) yɛ nnipa a wɔyɛ adwuma wɔ ahyehyɛde,adwumayɛkuw, nnwuma, anaa sikasɛm mu. Adwene a ɛyɛ teateaa ne nnipa kapital, nimdeɛ ne ahokika a ankorankora no hyɛ. Nsɛmfua a ɛte saa ara no bi ne adwumayɛfo, wɔn a wɔka wɔn ho anaasɛ kɛkɛ: nnipa.

Ahyehyɛdeɛ bi mu Nnipa Nnwuma dwumadibea (HR department) na ɛyɛ nnipa ahoɔden sohwɛ, ɛhwɛ adwumayɛ mu nneɛma ahodoɔ so, te sɛ adwumayɛfoɔ mmara ne adwumayɛ gyinapɛn a wɔdi so, nsɛmbisa ne paadie, adwumayɛ ho nhyehyɛeɛ. Adwumayɛfoɔ mfasoɔ a wɔhwɛ so, adwumayɛfoɔ fael a wɔhyehyɛ ne nkrataa a wɔhwehwɛ a wɔde bedi dwuma daakye, ne nneɛma bi a ɛfa adwumayɛfo a wɔfa wɔn adwuma mu (a wɔsan frɛ no talente a wobenya) ne adwumayɛfo a wɔayi wɔn afi adwumam ho,[1] ɔmo yɛ ntɛm gyinafoɔ sɛ ɛba dwumakuo no ni ɔmu adwumayɛfo.

Nnwuma no bi ne nhyehyeɛ, adwumayɛfoɔ a wɔfa ne wɔn a wɔpaw wɔn, adwuma ho dawurobɔ a wɔde bɛto hɔ, adwumayɛfoɔ adwumayɛ a wɔbɛsɔ ahwɛ,wɔbɛhyehyɛ wɔ dwumadie no mu na wɔahwɛ sɛ wɔbɛhwehwɛ wɔn akyigyina. Adwuma foforo ne akatua ne mfasoɔ ho dwumadie a ɛfa hwɛ a wɔbɛhwɛ sɛ wɔbɛbu akwamma ne yareɛ berɛ ho akontaa, akatua a wɔbɛsan ahwɛ mu, na wɔde wɔn ho ahyɛ mfasoɔ nnwuma mu, te sɛ sika a wɔgye ho gyinaesie, mfasoɔ ho nsɛm a wɔbɛpata, ne sika a wɔde tua ho ka a wɔbɛpene so[2]. HR nso yɛ adwumayɛfoɔ ntam abusuabɔ dwumadiɛ ne nhyehyɛeɛ a adwumayɛfoɔ afotuo ka ho, nanso ɛnyɛ ne nyinaa.[3]Adwuma a etwa to ne daa nsiesie, saa adwuma yi hwɛ sɛ mprempren HR fael ne database ahorow no yɛ nea ɛyɛ foforo, hwɛ adwumayɛfo mfaso ne adwumayɛ tebea so na wɔyɛ akatua/mfaso ho mpata[4]

Nnwoma[sesa]

  • ɛtumi ayɛ adwuma ahodoɔ wɔ adwumakuo bi mu, a nea ɛka ho ne sɛ: [5]
  • Kyerɛ adwumayɛfo/adwumayɛfo no ahiade.
  • Hwɛ sɛ ebia wode bere tiaa mu adwumayɛfo bedi dwuma anaasɛ wobɛfa adwumayɛfo ma wɔadi saa ahiade ahorow yi ho dwuma.
  • Kyerɛ nea ɛsɛ sɛ woyɛ ne nea ɛnsɛ sɛ woyɛ.
  • Tete na nya nhyehyɛe a wɔde di dwuma
  • Fa adwumayɛfo a wɔyɛ papa no na/anaasɛ bisabisa wɔn nsɛm
  • Tete adwumayɛfo na ma wɔn adesua nimdeɛ nkɔ anim
  • Hwɛ adwuma no so
  • Hwɛ adwuma no mu hwɛ
  • Fa nteɛso adwumayɛ amammerɛ si hɔ wɔ ahyehyɛde no mu
  • Kwati amammuisɛm wɔ adwumayɛbea hɔ.
  • Fa HR software di dwuma na ama adwuma ayɛ mmerɛw wɔ ahyehyɛde no mu.
  • Hwɛ adwumayɛfo ntam abusuabɔ so. Sɛ adwumayɛkuw ahorow wɔ hɔ a, yɛ adwuma a wɔbom yɛ
  • Siesie adwumayɛfoɔ kyerɛwtohɔ ne ankorankoro nhyehyɛeɛ.
  • Hwɛ adwumayɛfo akatua, mfaso horow, ne akatua so
  • Hwɛ hu sɛ wobenya hokwan ahorow a ɛyɛ pɛ
  • Di nyiyim ho dwuma
  • Di adwumayɛ ho nsɛm ho dwuma
  • Siesie akyirikyiri adwuma ne adwuma a wɔde afrafra ho nhyehyɛe
  • Hwɛ sɛ nnipa ahoɔden nneyɛe ne mmara ahorow hyia
  • Kanyan adwumayɛfo
  • Yɛ ntamgyinafo ma akasakasa
  • Fa nsɛm kyekyɛ wɔ ahyehyɛde no mu sɛnea ɛbɛyɛ a ɛbɛboa ne nkɔso

Ɛsɛ sɛ adwumam mpanyimfo nya wɔn nkitahodi ho nimdeɛ mu nkɔso na ama wɔatu mpɔn. Ahyehyɛde nneyɛe twe adwene si sɛnea wɔbɛma nneɛma a ɛma ahyehyɛde ahorow tu mpɔn kɛse no atu mpɔn so.

Abakɔsɛm[sesa]

Kan no na wɔfrɛ nnipa ahoɔden sohwɛ "adwumayɛfo adwumayɛ". Wɔ 1920 mfeɛ no mu no, na adwumayɛfoɔ sohwɛ de wɔn adwene si adwumayɛfoɔ a wɔfa wɔn adwuma mu, wɔsɔ wɔn hwɛ, na wɔtua wɔn ka so kɛseɛ. Nanso, wɔamfa wɔn adwene annsi adwumayɛ mu abusuabɔ biara so wɔ ahyehyɛde no adwumayɛ gyinabea anaasɛ nhyehyɛe mu abusuabɔ a ɛwɔ afã biara mu no so. Eyi maa biakoyɛ nhwɛso a enni hɔ wɔ afuw no mu wɔ saa bere yi mu.[6]

Wɔ 1920 mfeɛ no mu no, na adwumayɛfoɔ sohwɛ de wɔn adwene si adwumayɛfoɔ a wɔfa wɔn adwuma mu, wɔsɔ wɔn hwɛ, na wɔtua wɔn ka so kɛseɛ. Nanso, wɔamfa wɔn adwene annsi adwumayɛ mu abusuabɔ biara so wɔ ahyehyɛde no adwumayɛ gyinabea anaasɛ nhyehyɛe mu abusuabɔ a ɛwɔ afã biara mu no so. Eyi maa biakoyɛ nhwɛso a enni hɔ wɔ afuw no mu wɔ saa bere yi mu.[7]

Sɛnea HR Magazine asɛm bi kyerɛ no, adwumayɛfo sohwɛ dwumadibea a edi kan no fii ase wɔ National Cash Register Co. wɔ 1900. Owura no, John Henry Patterson, hyehyɛɛ adwumayɛfo dwumadibea bi a wobedi anwiinwii, adwumayɛfo a woyi wɔn fi adwumam ne ahobammɔ, ne nsɛm a wɔde bɛma adwuma so ahwɛfo a ɛfa mmara foforo ho ne nneyɛe a wɔyɛ wɔ adwumayɛban mu adwumayɛfo a wɔagyae adwumayɛ mpɛn pii ne adwumayɛfo a wɔatoto mu akyi. Nnwumakuw afoforo dii saa adeyɛ yi akyi; sɛ nhwɛso no, na Ford wɔ adwumayɛfo a wɔtɔn nneɛma no dodow a ɛkɔ soro a ɛyɛ ɔha biara mu nkyem 380 wɔ 1913 mu, nanso afe biako pɛ akyi no, na adwumakuw no mu adwumayɛfo a wɔyɛ adwuma wɔ telefon so no abu wɔn da biara da akatua mmɔho abien fi dɔla 2.50 akodu dɔla 5, ɛwom mpo sɛ na dɔla 2.50 yɛ akatua a ɛfata saa bere no [8]. Saa nhwɛsoɔ yi kyerɛ pefee sɛ ɛho hia sɛ wɔyɛ adwuma yie a ɛde adwumayɛfoɔ akomatɔyam kɛseɛ ba na ɛsan nso hyɛ adwumayɛfoɔ nkuran sɛ wɔnyɛ adwuma bom sɛdeɛ ɛbɛyɛ a wɔbɛtumi adu adwumayɛ botaeɛ pa ho.

Wɔ 1970 mfe no mu no, Amerika nnwuma fii ase hyiaa nsɛnnennen esiane akansi mu nhyɛso a ɛkɔɔ soro kɛse nti. Nnwumakuw nyaa wiase nyinaa ayɔnkofa, mmara a wɔayi afi hɔ, ne mfiridwuma mu nsakrae a ɛba ntɛmntɛm a ɛmaa nnwumakuw akɛse no maa wɔn nhyehyɛe a wɔde yɛ adwuma no nyaa nkɔso – adeyɛ a wɔde hyɛ nsakrae a ɛbɛba daakye wɔ tebea pɔtee bi mu ho nkɔm na wɔde wɔn adwene asi akwan a wɔbɛfa so ahyɛ ahyehyɛde no mu mmɔdenbɔ ho nkuran so. Eyi maa wonyaa nnwuma ne hokwan pii maa nkurɔfo sɛ wɔbɛda wɔn nimdeɛ adi a na ɛkyerɛ sɛ wɔde adwumayɛfo bedi dwuma yiye de adi ankorankoro, kuw, ne ahyehyɛde botae ahorow ho dwuma. Mfeɛ pii akyi no wɔhyehyɛɛ nnipa ahoɔden sohwɛ titire/ketewaa wɔ sukuupɔn ne kɔlege a wɔsan frɛ no adwumayɛ sohwɛ. Ɛyɛ dwumadi ahorow a nnwumakuw de hwɛɛ sɛ wɔde adwumayɛfo bedi dwuma yiye no nyinaa.[9]

Seesei, nnipa ahoɔden twe adwene si nnipa afã wɔ adwumayɛ mu.[10]Nkyerɛaseɛ ankasa mmienu na ɛwɔ hɔ a ɛfa HRM (Human Resource Management) ho; biako ne sɛ ɛyɛ ɔkwan a wɔfa so di nnipa so wɔ ahyehyɛde ahorow mu wɔ ɔkwan a wɔahyehyɛ na ɛkɔ akyiri so.[11]Wei kyerε sε εka adwuma a wɔfa nnipa, adwuma a wɔyi obi fi adwumam, akatua ne mfasoɔ, ne adwumayɛ ho dwumadie ho.[12] Saa nkyerɛaseɛ a ɛdi kan yi yɛ nnɛyi ne atetesɛm deɛ no te sɛ deɛ anka adwumayɛfoɔ sohwɛfoɔ bɛyɛ wɔ 1920 mfeɛ no mu no kɛseɛ.[13]Nkyerɛaseɛ a ɛtɔ so mmienu ne sɛ HRM twa adwene a ɛfa nnipa a wɔhwɛ wɔn so wɔ ahyehyɛdeɛ mu no ho hyia firi macromanagement adwene mu te sɛ adetɔfoɔ ne akansifoɔ a wɔwɔ gua so.[14] Eyi fa adwene a wɔde besi so sɛ wɔbɛma "adwumayɛ mu abusuabɔ" no ayɛ nea ɛfata ama adwumayɛfo ne adwumayɛfo nyinaa.[15]

Nhwehwɛmu bi kyerɛɛ sɛ adwumayɛfoɔ tumi yɛ adwuma wɔ adwumayɛ mu a ɛkorɔn koraa berɛ a wɔn adwuma so ahwɛfoɔ ne adwuma so ahwɛfoɔ de wɔn adwene si wɔn so kɛseɛ.[16]Nnipa ntam abusuabɔ Agya, Elton Mayo, ne onipa a odi kan a ɔhyɛɛ hia a adwumayɛfo nkitahodi, biakoyɛ, ne wɔn ho a wɔde bɛhyɛ mu ho hia no mu den.[7] [17]Ne nhwehwɛmu ahorow no de baa awiei s1ɛ ɛtɔ mmere bi a nnipa nneɛma ho hia sen honam fam nneɛma te sɛ kanea a ɛyɛ papa ne adwumayɛbea tebea honam fam. Ne saa nti, ankorankoro taa bu sɛnea wɔte nka no sɛ ɛsom bo kɛse.[7]Sɛ nhwɛso no, nhyehyɛe a mfaso wɔ so wɔ Nnipa ahoɔden sohwɛ mu, a wɔde di dwuma yiye no betumi ahyɛ adwumayɛfo nkuran bio ma wɔanya wɔn adwumayɛ a eye sen biara.

Bɛbia Nsɛmfua Mmoaɛ Efiri[sesa]

Sikasɛm ho ɔkwampaefo John R. Commons kaa "nnipa ahoɔden" ho asɛm kyerɛwee wɔ 1893 mu no mu nanso wankyerɛkyerɛ mu yiye.[18] Wɔde asɛmfua no dii dwuma wɔ 1910 kosi 1930 mfe no mu de hyɛɛ adwene a ɛne sɛ nnipa som bo (te sɛ nea ɛte wɔ nnipa nidi mu) no ho nkuran; ebeduu 1950 mfe no mfiase no, na ɛkyerɛ nnipa sɛ ɔkwan a wɔfa so nya biribi (ma adwumawuranom)[19]Wɔ nhomanimfo mu no, nea edi kan a wɔde kasasin no dii dwuma wɔ saa ntease no mu ne amanneɛbɔ bi a sikasɛm ho ɔbenfo E. Wight Bakke de mae wɔ 1958 mu[20].

Ɛdefa sɛnea ankorankoro yɛ wɔn ade wɔ nsakrae a ɛba adwumayɛfo gua so ho no, ɛsɛ sɛ wɔte nea edidi so yi ase:

  • Ahokokwaw ne ahwehwɛde ahorow: bere a nnwuma ahorow fi nsaanodwuma mu kɔ adwuma sohwɛ adwuma pii so no, saa ara na ɛho hia sɛ wonya adwumayɛfo a wɔn ho akokwaw kɛse. Sɛ gua no "yɛ den" (i.e. adwumayɛfoɔ a wɔnnɔɔso mma nnwuma no) a, ɛsɛ sɛ adwumawuranom si akan wɔ adwumayɛfoɔ ho denam sikasɛm mu akatua, mpɔtam hɔ sika a wɔde bɛto mu, ne nea ɛkeka ho a wɔde bɛma so.
  • Asasesin mu ntrɛwmu: adwuma no ne onipa no ntam kwan ware he? Ɛsɛ sɛ kwan tenten a ɛsɛ sɛ wotu kɔ adwuma no ne akatua hyia, na akwantu ne nneɛma a ɛwɔ mpɔtam hɔ nso nya onii a ɔhwehwɛ dibea bi so nkɛntɛnso.
  • Adwumayɛ nhyehyɛe: adwumayɛ ahorow a ɛwɔ ahyehyɛde bi mu no gyinapɛn ne gyinapɛn ahorow. Mahoney 1989 yɛɛ adwuma nhyehyɛe ahorow 3, a ɛne, nsaanodwuma (nokwaredi ma adwuma no), ahyehyɛde adwuma kwan (nkɔanim denam adwumakuw no so), ne nea enni nhyehyɛe (adwumayɛfo a wɔba fam/wɔn ho akokwaw a wɔyɛ adwuma bere a ɛho hia).

Awo ntoatoaso mu nsonsonoe: adwumayɛfo a wɔadi mfe ahorow wɔ su ahorow bi, sɛ nhwɛso no, wɔn nneyɛe ne nea wɔhwɛ kwan wɔ ahyehyɛde no ho.[21]

Bɛbia Mmoa Efiri[sesa]

  1. "Human resources", Wikipedia (in English), 2023-07-26, retrieved 2023-08-02
  2. "Human resources", Wikipedia (in English), 2023-08-04, retrieved 2023-08-04
  3. "Human resources", Wikipedia (in English), 2023-08-04, retrieved 2023-08-04
  4. "Human resources", Wikipedia (in English), 2023-08-04, retrieved 2023-08-04
  5. "Human resources", Wikipedia (in English), 2023-08-04, retrieved 2023-08-04
  6. "Human resources", Wikipedia (in English), 2023-08-04, retrieved 2023-08-04
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 "Human resources", Wikipedia (in English), 2023-08-04, retrieved 2023-08-04
  8. "Human resources", Wikipedia (in English), 2023-08-04, retrieved 2023-08-04
  9. "Human resources", Wikipedia (in English), 2023-08-04, retrieved 2023-08-04
  10. "Human resources", Wikipedia (in English), 2023-08-04, retrieved 2023-08-04
  11. "Human resources", Wikipedia (in English), 2023-08-04, retrieved 2023-08-04
  12. "Human resources", Wikipedia (in English), 2023-08-04, retrieved 2023-08-04
  13. "Human resources", Wikipedia (in English), 2023-08-04, retrieved 2023-08-04
  14. "Human resources", Wikipedia (in English), 2023-08-04, retrieved 2023-08-04
  15. "Human resources", Wikipedia (in English), 2023-08-04, retrieved 2023-08-04
  16. "Human resources", Wikipedia (in English), 2023-08-04, retrieved 2023-08-04
  17. "Human resources", Wikipedia (in English), 2023-08-04, retrieved 2023-08-04
  18. "Human resources", Wikipedia (in English), 2023-08-04, retrieved 2023-08-04
  19. "Human resources", Wikipedia (in English), 2023-08-04, retrieved 2023-08-04
  20. "Human resources", Wikipedia (in English), 2023-08-04, retrieved 2023-08-04
  21. "Human resources", Wikipedia (in English), 2023-08-04, retrieved 2023-08-04