Nkramoni

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Nkramofoɔ (Arabic: مسلم, transl. "obi a ɔde ne ho [ma Onyankopɔn]") yɛ nnipa a wɔdi Nkramosom so, a ɛyɛ Abraham ɔsom. Wɔfa Quran a ɛyɛ Nkramosom twerɛsɛm a wɔgyina so di wɔn dwuma sɛ, ɛyɛ Abraham Onyankopɔn (Allah) nsɛm korɔgyee, sɛdeɛ wɔdaa no adi kyerɛɛ Muhammad, Nkɔmhyɛni ma Nkramosom.[1] Nkramofoɔ pii no ara di nkyerɛkyerɛ ne nnoɔma a Muhammad (sunnah) yɛ sɛdeɛ wɔtwerɛ no no.[2] Wɔ mfeɛ mpem mmienu ne aduonu mu no, nnipa bɛyɛ mpem mmienu a wɔka no no, na nkramofoɔ bɛboro ɔhamu nkyekyɛmu aduonu num wɔ nnipa dodoɔ a ɛwɔ wiase.[3]Sɛ wohwɛ ɔhamu nkyekyɛmu a mantam biara nkramofoɔ nyaeɛ a: ɔhamu nkyekyɛmu aduokron baako wɔ Middle East ne North Africa(MENA),[4] wɔ Central Asia [5]ɔnyaa ɔhamu nkyekyɛmu aduowɔtwe baako, ɔhamu nkyekyɛmu aduosia num wɔ Caucasus, [6][7]wɔ southeast Asia [8]nso wɔnyaa ɔhamu nkyekyɛmu aduanan, ɔhamu nkyekyɛmu aduasa baako wɔ south Asia, [9]ɔhamu nkyekyɛmu aduasa wɔ sub-saharan Africa, [10]ɔhamu nkyekyɛmu aduonu num wɔ Asia ne Oceania nso saa ara,[11] bɛyɛ ɔhamu nkyekyɛmu nsia wɔ Europe,[12] ne ɔhamu nkyekyɛmu baako wɔ America.[13][14] Nkramosom kuo akɛseɛ mmienu paa ne Sunni Island(70-90%) [15]ne Shia islam (10-20%). [16]Nnipa bɛyɛ sɛ ɔhamu nkyekyɛmu du mmienu na ɛte indonesia, nkramofoɔ man a ɛso a nkramofoɔ pii te hɔ, [17]nkramofoɔ bɛyɛ ɔhamu nkyekyɛmu aduasa baako na ɛte South Asia, [18]ɔman a nkramofoɔ pii no ara wɔ hɔ sɛ wokan wɔn a, [19]nnipa ɔhamu nkyekyɛmu aduonu te Middle East ne North Africa, [20]a ɛyɛ mantam a wɔ dɔɔso wɔ hɔ, [21]ne ɔhamu nkyekyɛmu du num wɔ Sub-saharan Africa. [22] Nkramofoɔ na ɛdɔɔso paa ara wɔ Central Asia, pii no ara wɔ Caucasus [23]na atrɛ wɔ Southeast Asia. [24] Mpɔtam a ɛso paa ara a nkramofoɔ te hɔ paa ara ne Europe. [25]Nkramosom yɛ ɛsom a agye din a ɛkɔ n'anim wɔ wiase.[26]

N'abɔseɛ[sesa]

Edin nkramoni (Arabic: مسلم, IPA: [ˈmʊslɪm]; borɔfo: /ˈmʌzlɪm/, /ˈmʊzlɪm/, /ˈmʊslɪm/ anaasɛ moslem /ˈmɒzləm/, /ˈmɒsləm/[27]) yɛ active participle ma adeyɛ korɔ no ara a Nkramosom yɛ verbal noun, a ɛgyina S-L-M mmiɛnsa yi so " sɛ wobɛbɔ ano, ayɛ baako".[28] Ɔbaa ɔde ne ho fam so no wɔfrɛ no muslima (Arabic: مسلمة) (a ɔsane kyerɛ mu sɛ "Muslimah"[29] ). Ne dodoɔ kanea wɔ Arabic mu ne muslimūn (مسلمون) anaasɛ muslimīn (مسلمين), na ne baa nso deɛ ne muslimāt (مسلمات). Ne din paa a ɛwɔ borɔfo kasa mu ne "Nkramoni" nanso seisei deɛ wɔmfa mfeɛ wɔn bio.[30] Edin Mosalman (Persian: مسلمان, alternatively Mussalman) yɛ edin a ɛne nkramoni a wɔde frɛ wɔn wɔ Central ne South Asia yɛ pɛ. Wɔ Engresi borɔfo kasa mu no ɛtɔ da a wɔtwerɛ no Mussulman na abɛyɛ adeɛ a atwam a wɔmfa nni dwuma bio. Kɔpem sɛ bɛyɛ afe apem ahankron ne aduosia mfimfini mu hɔ no, wɔn a wɔtwerɛ Engresi borɔfo kasa pii no ara de Mohammedans anaasɛ Mahometans na na ɛdi dwuma wɔ wɔn atwerɛ mu.[31] Ɛwɔm sɛ na saa edin no nyɛ adeɛ bia na ɛte wɔn animuonyam so deɛ, nanso nkramofoɔ no kasakasaa sɛ saa edin no kasa tia wɔn ɛfiri sɛ edin no kyerɛ sɛ nkramofoɔ som Muhammad gyae Onyankopɔn.[32] Edin bi a wɔmfa mfeɛ wɔn a atwam no bi ne Muslimite [33]ne Muslimist.[34] Wɔ Medieval Europe mu no, na wɔfrɛ nkramofoɔ Sarcasens.

Nkramofoɔ nyansasɛm a Ibn Arabi ka ne sɛ:

Nkramoni ne obi a ɔde ne ho ma Onyankopɔn wɔn ne som.... Nkramosom kyerɛ sɛ wode obi som ne ne gyedie ma Onyankopɔn nko ara.[35]

Deɛ ɛfata[sesa]

ašhadu ʾal-lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu wa ʾašhadu ʾanna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh (أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمداً رسول الله) "megye tom sɛ, Onyankopɔn biara nni hɔ (ɛwɔ sɛ yɛ som no) agye Allah na Muhammad ne Allah somafoɔ "[36] Wɔ Sunni nkramosom mu no, Shahada wɔ nkyekyɛmu mmienu:la ilaha illa'llah (yɛnni Nyame foforɔ biara ka Allah ho), ne Muhammadun rasul Allah (Onyankopɔn somafoɔ ane Muhammad ),[37] a ɛtɔ da wɔfrɛ no Shahada a ɛdikan ne Shahada a ɛtɔso mmienu.[38] Shahada a ɛdikan kan no wɔsane frɛ no tahlil.[39] Wɔ Shia nkramosom mu no, Shahada wɔ nkyekyɛmu a ɛtɔ so mmiɛnsa, nsɛm bi a ɛfa Amu, Shia Iman a ɔdikan ne Rashid caliph ma Sunni nkramosom a ɛtɔso nan: وعليٌ وليُّ الله (wa ʿalīyyun walīyyu-llāh), a wɔkyerɛ mu sɛ "Ali tyɛ wali ma Onyankopɔn".[40] Wɔ Quranist Nkramosom mu no, Shahada yɛ adanseɛ sɛ yɛnni Nyame foforɔ biara ka Allah ho (la ilaha illa'llah ). Wakyerɛkyerɛ nnoɔma a nkramofoɔ yɛ wɔ wɔn som mu no wɔ agyinapem num a ɛwɔ nkramosom no mu: wɔde da wɔn gyedie adi (Shahada), dabiara mpaeɛ (salah) wɔkyɛ mmɔborɔfoɔ adeɛ(zakat),wɔyɛ akɔnkyere wɔ Ramadan bosome mu(sawm), na wɔkɔ mecca(hajj) bɛyɛ baakopɛ wɔ wɔn asetena mu.[41][42]

Nkramosom Adesua[sesa]

Qur'an ne akyerɛ nkɔmhyɛfoɔ pii ne asikafoɔ pii wɔ Judaism ne kristosom ne akyidifoɔ a ɛka ho te sɛ nkramofoɔ. Nnipa a wɔbɔɔ wɔn din ne: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Jacob, Moses ne Yesu ne Asikafoɔ nyinaa na wɔsusu sɛ wɔyɛ nkramofoɔ wɔ Qur'an mu. Qur'an no kyerɛ sɛ saa nkorɔfoɔ yi yɛ nkramofoɔ ɛfiri sɛ wɔberɛ wɔn ho ase anaa wɔde wɔn ho maa Onyankopɔn,kaa n'asɛm pa, na wɔkura n'animuonyam mu, a ɔbɔ mpaeɛ, ɔkyɛ adeɛ, ɔyɛ akɔnkyere na ɔsane kɔ mecca. Wɔ Surah 3:52 wɔ Qur'an mu no, Yesu asuafoɔ kakyerɛɛ no sɛ, "yɛgye Onyankopɔn di na woyɛ yɛn dansefoɔ sɛ yɛyɛ nkramofoɔ (wa-shahad be anna muslimūn) . Wɔ nkramofoɔ gyedie mu no, ansana Qur'an bɛba no na onyankopɔn de Tawrat (Torah) ama Moses, Zabur(Nnwom) ama David ne Injil(Asɛmpa) no ama Yesu, a wɔsusu sɛ wɔyɛ nkramofoɔ nkɔmhyɛfoɔ a wɔn ho hia.[43][44]

Beaeɛ a menyaa mmoa firiiɛ[sesa]

  1. Welch, Alford T, Moussalli, Ahmad S, Newby, Gordon D (2009). "Muḥammad". In Esposito JL (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2017. The Prophet of Islam was a religious, political, and social reformer who gave rise to one of the great civilizations of the world. From a modern, historical perspective, Muḥammad was the founder of Islam. From the perspective of the Islamic faith, he was God's Messenger (rasūl Allāh), called to be a "warner," first to the Arabs and then to all humankind.
  2. https://books.google.com/books?id=vzx8HlsGnTcC&pg=PR21
  3. https://worldpopulationreview.com/country-rankings/muslim-population-by-country
  4. https://pewforum.org/future-of-the-global-muslim-population-regional-middle-east.aspx
  5. https://web.archive.org/web/20150924113632/http://www.pewforum.org/files/2014/01/global-religion-full.pdf
  6. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/azerbaijan/
  7. https://eurasianet.org/the-many-languages-of-islam-in-the-caucasus
  8. http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/Public/focus/essay1009_southeast_asia.html
  9. https://www.pewforum.org/2011/01/27/future-of-the-global-muslim-population-regional-asia/
  10. https://pewforum.org/future-of-the-global-muslim-population-regional-sub-saharan-africa.aspx
  11. https://pewforum.org/future-of-the-global-muslim-population-regional-asia.aspx
  12. https://pewforum.org/future-of-the-global-muslim-population-regional-europe.aspx
  13. https://pewforum.org/future-of-the-global-muslim-population-regional-americas.aspx
  14. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/mar/31/religion
  15. Sunni Islam: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide Archived 16 May 2020 at the Wayback Machine "Sunni Islam is the dominant division of the global Muslim community, and throughout history it has made up a substantial majority (85 to 90 percent) of that community."
  16. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Shii/Shii-dynasties
  17. https://www.pewforum.org/2011/01/27/the-future-of-the-global-muslim-population/
  18. https://books.google.com/books?id=kaubzRxh-U0C
  19. https://thediplomat.com/2016/01/how-south-asia-will-save-global-islam/
  20. https://www.pewforum.org/2009/10/07/mapping-the-global-muslim-population10/
  21. https://pewforum.org/future-of-the-global-muslim-population-regional-middle-east.aspx
  22. https://pewforum.org/future-of-the-global-muslim-population-regional-sub-saharan-africa.aspx
  23. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/azerbaijan/
  24. https://web.archive.org/web/20170320170459/http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/Public/focus/essay1009_southeast_asia.html
  25. https://www.thenational.ae/arts-culture/book-review-russia-s-muslim-heartlands-reveals-diverse-population-1.723230
  26. https://www.pewforum.org/2015/04/02/main-factors-driving-population-growth/
  27. "Muslim" Archived 20 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary: /ˈmʌzlɪm/, /ˈmʊzlɪm/, /ˈmʊslɪm/; moslem Archived 15 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine /ˈmɒzləm/, /ˈmɒsləm/
  28. Entry for šlm, p. 2067, Appendix B: Semitic Roots, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed., Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2000, ISBN 0-618-08230-1.
  29. "Archive copy". Archived from the original on 2016-08-17. Retrieved 2022-07-17.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  30. https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/moslem-or-muslim
  31. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fowler%27s_Modern_English_Usage
  32. Gibb, Sir Hamilton (1969). Mohammedanism: an historical survey. Oxford University Press. p. 1. Modern Muslims dislike the terms Mohammedan and Mohammedanism, which seem to them to carry the implication of worship of Mohammed, as Christian and Christianity imply the worship of Christ
  33. https://oed.com/search?searchType=dictionary&q=Muslimite
  34. https://archive.org/details/muslimbritaincom00abba
  35. Commentary on the Qur'an, Razi, I, p. 432, Cairo, 1318/1900
  36. https://books.google.com/books?id=vHG_VulBdd4C&q=convert+islam+shahada&pg=PA87
  37. Lindsay, p. 140–141
  38. Cornell, p. 9
  39. https://books.google.com/books?id=EYCFTVDDKmkC
  40. The Later Mughals by William Irvine p. 130
  41. https://web.archive.org/web/20101203124633/http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/GLOSSARY/5PILLARS.HTM
  42. "Archive copy". Archived from the original on 2018-12-20. Retrieved 2022-07-17.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  43. https://catstevens.com/think/spiritual-domain/the-books-of-islam/
  44. https://catstevens.com/think/spiritual-domain/the-books-of-islam/