Nana bɛrima

Ɛfi Wikipedia

Nananom yɛ obi agya anaa ne maame awofo – agya anaa ɛna. Abɔde a nkwa wom biara a ɔwo wɔ nna mu a ɔnyɛ awosu mu chimera no wɔ awosu mu nananom anan, awosu mu nananom awotwe, awosu mu nananom dunum, awosu mu nananom nananom aduasa abien, awosu mu nananom aduosia anan great-great-great-great grandparents, etc. Wɔ nnɛyi adesamma abakɔsɛm mu, bɛyɛ mfe 30,000 a atwam ni no, nnɛyi nnipa dodow a wɔtraa ase sɛ nananom no kɔɔ soro.[citation needed] Wonnim no yiye nea ɛkanyan saa nkɔanim yi wɔ nkwa tenten mu nanso nea ɛde aduruyɛ ho mfiridwuma ne asetra gyinapɛn a ɛkɔ anim no ba kɛse,[1] nanso wogye di sɛ ade titiriw a efii awo ntoatoaso abiɛsa a wɔbom traa ase no mu bae ne nsɛm a anka ebetumi ayera a wɔkoraa so; ebia na nsɛm a ɛho hia yi ho nhwɛso ne baabi a wobenya nsu wɔ ɔpɛ bere mu.[2][3]

Wɔ nsɛm a awofo mpɛ anaasɛ wontumi mfa ɔhwɛ a ɛfata mma wɔn mma (sɛ nhwɛso no, sikasɛm mu akwanside ahorow, aware mu haw ahorow, yare anaa owu[4]) mu no, nananom taa fa wɔn a wɔhwɛ wɔn titiriw no ho dwuma. Bere a eyi nte saa mpo, ne titiriw wɔ atetesɛm amammerɛ mu no, nananom taa nya dwuma a edi tẽẽ na emu da hɔ wɔ mmofra ntetee, wɔn hwɛ ne wɔn ntetee ho. Nananom yɛ wɔn mmanana abusuafo a wɔto so abien na wɔkyɛ awosu mu nneɛma a ɛka bom 25%.

Nanabea a ɔyɛ mpena betumi ayɛ ɔwofo no mpena anaa ɔwofo a ɔyɛ ɔbaatan anaa ɔwofo a ɔyɛ ɔbaatan (ɛwom sɛ wɔ mfiridwuma mu no, wobetumi afrɛ eyi sɛ ɔwofo a ɔyɛ ɔbaatan). Nsɛmfua ahorow a wɔde frɛ nananom wɔ mmere bi mu no nso wobetumi de akyerɛ obi a ne mfe akɔ anim biara, titiriw nsɛmfua gramps, nanabea, nana, nana, nanabea, nan, maw-maw, paw-paw (ne afoforo a mmusua ankasa yɛ) .

Abodin ahorow[sesa]

Sɛ wɔde di dwuma sɛ edin (e.g., "... nana bi a ɔnam") a, wɔtaa de nana ne nanabea di dwuma, ɛwom sɛ ɛtɔ mmere bi a wɔde nsɛmfua te sɛ nanabea/nana, nanabea/nana anaa mpo nan/pop di dwuma de. Sɛ "me ..." (e.g., "... me nana nantew twaam") di anim a, nkyerɛwde ahorow nyinaa abu so (baabiara fi "... me nana ..." kosi "... me Gramps ... "). Wobetumi de nkyerɛwde ahorow nyinaa adi dwuma wɔ dodow kabea mu, nanso Gramps (kabea kabea Gramps) ho yɛ na.

Wɔ nkyerɛwee mu no, Nanabea ne Nanabea na wɔtaa yɛ, nanso ɛntaa mma koraa sɛ address kwan bi. Wɔ kasa mu no, wɔtaa de Nanabea ne Nanabea di dwuma wɔ United States, Canada, ne Australia. Wɔ Britain, Ireland, United States, Australia, New Zealand ne, nea abu so titiriw wɔ Canada mantam Newfoundland ne Labrador mu no, wɔtaa de Nan, Nana, Nanna, Nanny, Gran ne Nanabea ne nsakrae afoforo di dwuma ma nanabea wɔ akyerɛw ne kasa nyinaa mu.

Wɔ Bangladesh ne India mmeae pii no, wɔfrɛ ɛnanom nananom Nana ne Nani. Saa ara nso na wɔfrɛ nananom a wɔyɛ agya no Dada ne Dadi. Wɔfrɛ obi awofo nananom a wɔyɛ wɔn maame no Par-nani ne Par-nana. Wɔ nsɛm a ɛte saa ara mu no, wɔfrɛ awofo nananom a wɔyɛ agya no Par-dada ne Par-dada.

.

Nsonsonoe afoforo pii wɔ hɔ, te sɛ Gramp, Gramps, Grampa, Nana, Nana, Grampy, Nana, Nana, Nana, Pop(s), Pap, Papa, Pappy, ne Pawpaw ma nana; Nanabea, Nanabea, Grama, Nanabea, Nanabea, Nanny, Nan(a), Mammaw, Meemaw ne Nanabea ma nanabea. Gogo betumi adi dwuma ama emu biara, ne nea ɛkeka ho.

Esiane sɛ ebia nkurɔfo wɔ nananom akuw abien a wɔte ase nti, adwene mu naayɛ bi sɔre fi nnipa baanu a wɔfrɛ wɔn "nanabea" anaa "nananom" mu, enti mpɛn pii no wɔde nsɛmfua afoforo a wɔabobɔ din wɔ atifi hɔ no mu abien di dwuma ma nananom kuw biako. Ano aduru foforo a wɔtaa yɛ ne sɛ wɔde wɔn din a edi kan ("Nana George", "Nanabea Anne", ne nea ɛkeka ho) anaa wɔn abusua din ("Nana Jones", "Nana Smith") bɛfrɛ nananom. Wɔ Amerika Atifi fam no, mmusua pii de wɔn mmusuakuw din frɛ nananom kuw biako (e.g., wobetumi afrɛ Hispanic nananom abuelo ne abuela anaa "abuelito" ne "abuelita", wobetumi afrɛ Fransefo nananom papi ne mamie, wobetumi afrɛ Italiafo nananom nonno na nonna, anaasɛ wobetumi afrɛ Dutchfo ne Germanfo nananom Opa ne Oma Wɔ Flanders no, wɔde pepee anaa petje ne memee anaa metje di dwuma kɛse). Wɔ Friesland no, nea wɔtaa de di dwuma ne pake ne beppe. Chinafo a wɔka Mandarin kasa no frɛ ɛnanom nananom sɛ wài pó (外婆, ɛna maame) na wài gōng (外公, ɛna papa) ne agyanom nananom ho asɛm sɛ nǎi nai (奶奶, agya maame) ne yé yé (爷爷, agya papa). Wɔ Philippines no, wɔfrɛ nananom lolo (nanabea) ne lola (nanabea).

Kasa ne amammerɛ ahorow a ɛwɔ abusuafo nsɛmfua pɔtee sen Borɔfo kasa no betumi ama nsonsonoe ada agya ne nananom ne ɛnanom nananom ntam. Sɛ nhwɛso no, wɔ Sweden kasa mu no, asɛmfua biako biara nni hɔ a ɛkyerɛ "nanabea"; wɔfrɛ ɛna no maame mormor na wɔfrɛ agya no maame farmor.[5] Nanso, Scandinavia kasa afoforo no, Danish ne Norway, de nsɛmfua a ɛkyerɛ abusuafo te sɛ Sweden kasa mu (wɔkyerɛw no pɛpɛɛpɛ wɔ kasa abiɛsa no nyinaa mu), ne nsɛmfua a wɔtaa de di dwuma a ɛte sɛ nanabea (Danish: bedstemor, Norway: bestemor) di dwuma.

Nananom ne nea ɛboro saa[sesa]

Wɔfrɛ nananom awofo, anaa ɔwofo bi nananom, din koro no ara a wɔde frɛ nananom (nana/-ɛna, nana/-ma, nana/-ma, ne nea ɛkeka ho) a wɔde great- a wɔde di anim, a wɔde kɛse foforo ka ho - a wode aka ho ama awo ntoatoasoo biara a aka ho. Obi nananom awofo bɛyɛ "nananom-nananom".

Sɛnea ɛbɛyɛ a obi bɛkwati "akɛse" a ɛbɛdɔɔso bere a ɔreka abusua anato ho nnua ho asɛm no, obetumi nso de ordinaals adi dwuma sen sɛ ɔde "akɛse" pii bedi dwuma; Enti "great-great-nana" bɛyɛ "na nana a ɔto so abien", na "nanabea-nana-nana" bɛyɛ nananom a ɔto so abiɛsa, ne nea ɛkeka ho. Saa nhyehyɛe yi na abusua anato ho wɛbsaet ahorow bi te sɛ Geni de di dwuma.[6] Obi betumi nso de kardinal nɔma adi dwuma de ahyɛ akɛse no nɔma, sɛ nhwɛso no, nanabea-nanabea bɛyɛ 3×-nanabea.

Ankorankoro a wɔwɔ nananom panyin koro nanso wɔnyɛ anuanom anaasɛ wɔn nuanom mma a wodi kan no, wɔfrɛ wɔn ho wɔn ho "nuanom mma a wɔto so abien", efisɛ nananom a wɔto so abien wɔ nananom a wɔyɛ anuanom. Saa ara nso na "nuanom mmarima a wɔto so abiɛsa" no benya nananom a wɔyɛ anuanom.

Etymology ho nsɛm[sesa]

Asɛmfua a edi kan "grand-" a wɔde dii dwuma no fi afeha a ɛto so 13 mfiase, efi Anglo-Franse graund mu. Wɔde asɛmfua no dii dwuma sɛ Latin kasa mu magnus nkyerɛase.[7] Prefix "great-" gyina hɔ ma Anglo-Franse graund ne Latin magnus nkyerɛase tẽẽ kɔ Engiresi kasa mu.[8] Wɔ Borɔfo Dedaw mu no, na wɔde nsɛmfua a edi kan ealde- (dedaw) ne ieldra- (elder) dii dwuma (ealdefæder/-mōdor ne ieldrafæder/-mōdor). Na wɔfrɛ nana panyin þridda fæder (agya a ɔto so abiɛsa), nana panyin fēowerða fæder (agya a ɔto so anan), ne nea ɛkeka ho.

Nsakrae a ɛba

maternal grandmother: ɛna no maame.

maternal grandfather: ɛna no papa.

paternal grandmother: agya no maame.

paternal grandfather: agya no papa.

Mmofra hwɛ mu a wɔde wɔn ho bɛhyɛ mu[sesa]

Nananom resakra wɔn dwumadi wɔ nnɛyi wiase,[9] titiriw no wɔde wɔn ho rehyɛ mmofra hwɛ mu kɛse. Sɛnea afe 2012 nhwehwɛmu bi a egyina afe 2010 nnipakan ne nhwehwɛmu nsɛm so kyerɛ no, mmofra bɛyɛ 10% wɔ U.S. te ofie bi a nananom ka ho mu.[10] Eyinom mu bɛyɛ nkyem abiɛsa mu biako te ofie bi a awofo baanu ne nana bi wom mu.[10] Saa ara nso na nananom bɛboro 40% wɔ Europa aman 11 so hwɛ wɔn mmanana bere a awofo no nni hɔ.[11] Wɔ Britain no, nananom bɛyɛ 63% hwɛ wɔn mmanana a wonnii mfe 16.[11] Nananom a wɔde wɔn ho hyɛ mu nso abu so wɔ Apuei Fam aman mu. Sɛ nhwɛso no, nananom a wɔwɔ Hong Kong no mu 48% bɔɔ amanneɛ sɛ wɔrehwɛ wɔn mmanana.[12] Wɔ China no, Chinafo nananom a wɔadi mfe 45 anaa nea ɛboro saa no mu bɛyɛ 58% na wɔde wɔn ho hyɛ mmofra hwɛ mu.[13] Wɔ Singapore no, mmofra 40% fi awo mu kosi mfe abiɛsa na wɔn nananom na wɔhwɛ wɔn na saa ɔha biara mu nkyem yi da so ara kɔ soro.[14] Wɔ South Korea no, mmofra a wonnii mfe 6 no mu 53% na wɔn nananom na wɔhwɛ wɔn.[15] Enti, nananom a wɔhwɛ wɔn mmanana no abɛyɛ ade a abu so wɔ wiase nyinaa.

Nneɛma kakraa bi nti na nananom a wɔde wɔn ho hyɛ mu no renya nkɔanim kɛse. Nea edi kan no, nkwa nna akɔ soro bere a awo dodow so atew no. Wei kyerɛ sɛ mmofra pii renyin bere a wɔn nananom da so te ase, a wobetumi de wɔn ho ahyɛ mmofra hwɛ mu.[10] Bio nso, awo dodow a ɛso atew no kyerɛ sɛ nananom betumi de wɔn adwene ne nneɛma pii asi wɔn mmanana koro pɛ so.[16] Nea ɛto so abien no, ɛnanom pii de wɔn ho hyɛ adwumayɛ mu, na enti, ɛsɛ sɛ wɔn a wɔhwɛ abofra no afoforo wɔ hɔ na wɔhwɛ abofra no.[10] Sɛ nhwɛso no, wɔ Hong Kong no, nananom 55% bɔɔ amanneɛ sɛ wɔhwɛɛ wɔn banana efisɛ ɛsɛ sɛ n’awofo yɛ adwuma.[12] Wɔ South Korea no, ɛnanom a wɔyɛ adwuma no mu 53% bɔɔ amanneɛ sɛ bere bi na wonya mmofra hwɛ ho nnwuma fi wɔn awofo hɔ.[15] Nea ɛto so abiɛsa no, mmusua a ɔwofo biako wom a ɛredɔɔso no ma wohia nananom mmoa.[17]

Sɛnea nananom de wɔn ho hyɛ mu no nso gu ahorow gyina ɔmanfo tebea te sɛ asetra mu yiyedi ho nhyehyɛe ahorow so. Sɛ nhwɛso no, wɔ Europa aman te sɛ Sweden ne Denmark, baabi a mmofra a wɔhwɛ wɔn wɔ ɔkwan a ɛfata so wɔ hɔ no, nananom de mmofra hwɛ a ɛnyɛ den pii ma.[11] Nea ɛne eyi bɔ abira no, wɔ Europa aman te sɛ Spain ne Italy, baabi a mmofra a wɔhwɛ wɔn wɔ ɔkwan a ɛfata so no sua, na wontua yiyedi ho ka no sua no, nananom de mmofra hwɛ a emu yɛ den ma.[11] Wɔ Singapore no, wɔde tow a wɔde bɛma nananom a wɔhwɛ wɔn so no sii hɔ wɔ afe 2004 mu, a ɛma awofo a wɔyɛ adwuma (Singapore manfo a wɔwɔ mma a wɔadi mfe 12 ne nea ennu saa) a nananom a wonni adwuma rehwɛ wɔn mma no nya sika tow a wɔde bɛma wɔn a ɛyɛ Singapore dɔla 3,000.[14]

Ahorow ahorow

Nananom de wɔn ho hyɛ mu ahorow ahorow, a nananom a wɔnte hɔ, nananom a wɔte hɔ, ofie a nananom hwɛ so, ne nananom a wɔhwɛ wɔn so ka ho.[18][19]

Nananom a wɔnte hɔ: Nananom a wɔne wɔn mmanana nte, nanso wɔhwɛ wɔn,[18][19] te sɛ nea wɔfa wɔn fi sukuu mu.

Nananom a wɔbom tra: Nananom a wɔne wɔn mmanana te, ne wɔn awofo nso. Wɔsan frɛ saa ofie yi awo ntoatoaso abiɛsa afie.[18] Sɛnea amanneɛbɔ bi a ɛde nsɛm a efi 2010 Census, American Community Survey (ACS), Current Population Survey (CPS), ne Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) mu di dwuma kyerɛ no, nananom a wɔte hɔ no taa wɔ mu ohia na wohu amane wɔ yare anaa dɛmdi bi ho.[10]

Afi a nananom hwɛ so: Nanabea bi a ɔhwɛ ofie no so. Wɔ saa ofie yi mu no, awofo no betumi aba anaasɛ wɔrenni hɔ.[10] Wɔ U.S. no, mmofra a wɔte ofie a nananom hwɛ so mu no mu 33% na nananom nkutoo na wɔwɔ hɔ; eyi yɛ nea wotumi de toto 30% foforo a wɔne nanabea ne awofo biako anaa nea ɛboro saa te ho.[10]

Nananom a wɔhwɛ wɔn so: Nananom a wɔtete wɔn mmanana a mmanana no awofo nni fie hɔ. Saa a wɔde wɔn ho hyɛ mu yi abu so titiriw wɔ mmusuakuw nketewa mu.[20] Sɛ nhwɛso no, bɛyɛ 50% nananom a wɔhwɛ wɔn so wɔ USA no yɛ mmusuakuw ketewaa bi mufo.[21] Mpɛn pii no, nananom gye ɔhwɛ adwuma titiriw no tom esiane nneɛma ahorow nti, te sɛ bere a wɔn awofo bu wɔn ani gu ne banana no so anaasɛ wɔyɛ no ayayade, bere a nnubɔne ne/anaasɛ nsa a wɔde di dwuma wɔ wɔn awofo mu, bere a wɔn awofo atu akɔtra baabi foforo esiane adwuma a wɔhwehwɛ nti, owu, . wɔde wɔn ato afiase, anaasɛ wɔde wɔn akɔ adwuma mu. Wɔ tebea horow bi mu no, awofo kɔ so ne wɔn mma di nkitaho.[18][19]

Nkɛntɛnso

*Wɔ mmanana ho

Ɛsono dwumadi ahorow a nananom yɛ wɔ mmofra nyin mu. Ɛnyɛ sɛ wɔde nnwinnade mmoa te sɛ mmanana a wɔfa wɔn fi sukuu mu anaasɛ wɔma wɔn aduan nko, na mmom wɔde nkate mu mmoa nso ma.[22] Bio nso, nananom bɔ mmofra ho ban na tebea bɔne te sɛ awofoyɛ a emu yɛ den, sikasɛm tebea a enye, ne mmusua a ɔwofo biako na wɔwom no anhaw wɔn.[23][24] Wɔ mmoa a wɔde ma akyi no, nananom nso betumi aboa mmanana wɔ wɔn sukuu nnwuma mu anaasɛ wɔakyerɛkyerɛ wɔn gyinapɛn ahorow a ɛho hia wɔn manfo.[22]

Nananom betumi anya mmofra nkɔso so nkɛntɛnso pa anaa bɔne. Ɔkwan baako so no, nhwehwɛmu a wɔadi kan ayɛ no kyerɛ sɛ mmofra ne mmabun a wɔne wɔn nananom wɔ abusuabɔ a emu yɛ den no taa nya yiyedi pa, wonya nkate mu haw kakraa bi, na wɔda nneyɛe a ɔhaw wom kakraa bi adi. Wɔsan nso de wɔn ho hyɛ adesua mu kɛse na wɔtaa boa afoforo.[25] Ɔkwan foforo so no, nhwehwɛmu nhwehwɛmu ahorow nso wɔ hɔ a ɛkyerɛ sɛ nananom a wɔde wɔn ho hyɛ mu no ne mmofra nkumaa a wɔyɛ ade tra so kɛse ne atipɛnfo nsɛnnennen wɔ abusuabɔ.[26] Ɔkwan foforo so no, mmofra a wɔn nananom hwɛ wɔn no betumi anya nnipa ntam abusuabɔ ho haw pii.[26] Afei nso, mmofra a wɔwɔ wɔn nananom hwɛ ase no nya akwahosan mu nsunsuanso bɔne te sɛ kɛseyɛ mmoroso, ne opira pii esiane ahobammɔ ho nimdeɛ a ɛba fam nti.[27]

*Wɔ nananom ho

Esiane sɛ mmanana a wɔbɛhwɛ wɔn no betumi ayɛ adwuma a ɛhwehwɛ pii a egye ahoɔden ne bere a wɔde wɔn ho bɛhyɛ mu bere nyinaa nti,[28] nananom a wɔde wɔn ho bɛhyɛ mmofra ntetee mu no betumi anya nkɛntɛnso bɔne wɔ nananom nipadua ne nkate fam akwahosan so. Sɛ nhwɛso no, mmanana a wɔhwɛ wɔn no betumi atew bere a nananom ankasa de hwɛ wɔn ho te sɛ wɔn ayaresa ho nhyehyɛe a wɔpa no so. Enti, ɛda adi sɛ wobenya hokwan kɛse sɛ wobehu amane wɔ nipadua mu akwahosan ho nsɛm ho.[29] Wɔ U.S. no, sɛ wɔde toto wɔn a wɔnhwɛ wɔn mmanana ho a, nananom a wɔde wɔn ho hyɛ mmofra hwɛ mu no taa nya nipadua mu tebea horow a enye, te sɛ komayare, mogya mmoroso anaa nipadua mu yaw.[30] Sɛ honam fam akwahosan ho nsɛm da nkyɛn a, ɛda adi sɛ nananom nso benya nkate fam nsɛm. Sɛ yɛbɛka no pɔtee a, mmofra nkumaa a wɔbɛtete wɔn bio no betumi ayɛ osuahu a ɛhaw adwene na ɛboro so na ɛnam so ama wɔanya nkate bɔne ahorow te sɛ dadwen anaa adwenemhaw.[31] Wɔ honam ne nkate fam nsɛm akyi no, nananom a wɔde wɔn ho hyɛ wɔn mmanana hwɛ mu no nso betumi ahu amane wɔ asetram. Sɛ nhwɛso no, wɔbɛhyɛ nananom ma wɔato wɔn asetra mu dwumadi ahorow ano hye sɛnea ɛbɛyɛ a wɔbɛhwɛ wɔn mmanana. Ɛdenam saayɛ so no, nananom twe wɔn ho fi wɔn asetra mu abusuabɔ ho kɛse.[32] Mnananom a wɔbɛhwɛ wɔn nso kyerɛ asɛyɛde pii, nananom besuro wɔn mmanana daakye yiyedi esiane wɔn dɛmdi ne owu daakye nti.[33] Sɛ nananom ntumi nni wɔn mmanana hwɛfo dwumadi no ho dwuma yiye a, awiei koraa no saa adwuma yi betumi abɛyɛ adesoa anaasɛ adwennwen na ɛde nipadua akwahosan ne nkate fam nsɛm a emu yɛ den kɛse aba nananom so.[34]

Nanso, nneɛma pa nso wɔ hɔ a efi mmanana ntetee mu a wɔde wɔn ho bɛhyɛ mu no. Sɛ wɔde toto nananom a wɔmfa ɔhwɛ mma wɔn mmanana ho a, wɔn a wɔde nnɔnhwerew pii hwɛ wɔn mmanana no taa nya adwene mu dwumadi ahorow a eye.[35] Sɛ yɛbɛka no pɔtee a, mmanana a wɔhwɛ wɔn no boa nananom a wɔn mfe akɔ anim ma wokura wɔn adwene mu tumi mu wɔ akyiri yi asetra mu, ɛnyɛ den nso sɛ wobenya nyarewa te sɛ adwenemhaw.[36] Bio nso, nkitahodi a wɔtaa ne wɔn mmanana bɛbɔ no betumi atew adwene mu onyin kwan no so, na ama nananom anya hokwan atra ase a ɛyɛ hyew na ɛyɛ nnam kɛse.[18][35] Nananom nso nya mfaso fi apɔw-mu-teɛteɛ pii wɔ saa adeyɛ yi mu.[37]

Mnanana a wɔhwɛ wɔn no nso betumi anya mfaso wɔ nananom nkate fam akwahosan so. Sɛ nhwɛso no, nananom pii fi ase te nka sɛ wɔwɔ atirimpɔw ne ntease wɔ asetra mu bio bere a wɔakɔ pɛnhyen no; sɛ nhwɛso foforo no, abusuabɔ a ɛda wɔne wɔn mma ne wɔn mmanana a wɔanyinyin nso mu yɛ den.[38] Nananom pii nso susuw ɔhwɛ mu osuahu no ho sɛ ɛyɛ adepa efisɛ ɛma wonya hokwan foforo ma wodi mfomso ahorow a wɔne wɔn ankasa mma dii no na ɛma wonya hokwan pii de kyerɛkyerɛ wɔn mmanana na wɔma wɔn awofoyɛ kwan tu mpɔn.

Amammerɛ mu ntotoho

Ɛsono sɛnea nananom de wɔn ho hyɛ mu wɔ Atɔe Fam ne Apuei Famfo amammerɛ mu. Nananom a wɔhwɛ wɔn mmanana no yɛ ade a ɛtaa ba wɔ China esiane Chinafo atetesɛm a esi abusua mu biakoyɛ, nnipa dodow yiyedi, awo ntoatoaso ntam nsakrae ne mma asɛyɛde ahorow so dua nti.[34] China nyansapɛ ahorow a ɛyɛ soronko, Buddhasom ne Taosom, di dwuma titiriw wɔ saa amammerɛ mu gyinapɛn ahorow yi a wɔbɛhyehyɛ no mu. Bere a China Buddhasom si abusua no dwumadi a wɔde di kan wɔ Chinafo asetra mu ne abusua mufo ntam abusuabɔ a ɛyɛ biako so dua no,[40] Taosom si hia a biakoyɛ ho hia wɔ nnipa ntam abusuabɔ ne abusuabɔ a ɛda abɔde ne nnipa ntam no so dua. Saa nyansapɛ ahorow yi si dwuma titiriw a mmusua di wɔ Chinafo amammerɛ mu no so dua. Sɛ amammerɛ mu nneɛma da nkyɛn a, nananom a wɔhwɛ wɔn mmanana nso da adi wɔ tebea a ehia sɛ wɔn mma a wɔanyinyin de bere nyinaa yɛ adwuma wom no mu, na mmofra hwɛ adwuma no bo yɛ den dodo (wɔ nkurow akɛse mu) anaasɛ ɛho yɛ na dodo (wɔ mmeae a ɛwɔ akyirikyiri). [34] [42] na ɛwɔ hɔ. Nananom a wɔsom sɛ wɔn mmanana hwɛfo abu so titiriw wɔ China nkuraase. Esiane nkurow akɛse mu nkɔso a aba ntɛmntɛm wɔ China fi 1980 mfe no mu nti, adwumayɛfo a wotu kɔtra mmeae foforo bɛyɛ ɔpepem 220 a wofi nkuraase tu kɔ nkurow akɛse mu kɔhwehwɛ adwuma pii, a ɛma mmofra bɛyɛ ɔpepem 58 ka akyi wɔ nkuraase,[42] nananom, enti , fa awofo dwumadi no ho dwuma na wɔbɛyɛ wɔn mmanana ahwɛfo. Nnipa dodow foforo a wɔfrɛ wɔn “nananom a wɔagyaw wɔn akyi”[43] pue wɔ saa tebea yi mu, saa nananom yi te China nkuraase, na wɔn adwuma titiriw ne sɛ wɔbɛhwɛ wɔn mmanana, saa nananom yi mu dodow no ara rehyia sikasɛm mu adesoa na wɔpɛ sɛ wɔn mma a wɔanyinyin no betumi ayɛ saa san bra. “Nananom a wɔagyaw wɔn akyi” adwene ne nipadua akwahosan hia sɛ ɔmanfo de wɔn adwene si so kɛse.[44] Ɛwom mpo sɛ wɔ nkurow akɛse mu mmeae a wobetumi ahwɛ mmofra no de, nanso ɛkame ayɛ sɛ nananom nyinaa da so ara pɛ sɛ wofi wɔn pɛ mu hwɛ wɔn mmanana. Ɛnyɛ sɛ eyi betumi atew wɔn mma a wɔanyinyin no sikasɛm mu adesoa a ɛwɔ mmofra hwɛ adwuma so no so nko nti na mmom wɔn ankasa mmanana a wɔbɛhwɛ wɔn nso yɛ ɔkwan a etu mpɔn a wɔfa so kura abusua mu biakoyɛ mu.[34]

Wɔ U.S. no, mmanana a wɔbɛhwɛ wɔn no nyɛ nananom asɛyɛde a ɛho hia. Nananom a wɔhwɛ wɔn mmanana no taa fi nsɛm a ɛsisi a wɔmpɛ anaa ɔhaw ahorow, na ɛte sɛ ɔhaw bi ano aduru kɛse, na ɛnyɛ ɔpɛ a wɔde bɛhyɛ ase, a ɛyɛ nsonsonoe soronko wɔ nea ɛwɔ China no ho.[33] Sɛ nhwɛso no, nananom a wɔwɔ USA no taa hwɛ wɔn mmanana bere a wɔn mma a wɔanyinyin kɔ ɔhaw ahorow te sɛ nnuru a wɔde di dwuma ɔkwammɔne so, afiase anaa awofo wu mu.[33][45] Nsonsonoe nso wɔ mmusuakuw ahorow mu wɔ U.S., Caucasian ankorankoro taa bu ankorankoro ahofadi sɛ ɛho hia kɛse, enti nananom ntaa nhwɛ wɔn mmanana. Nanso, abibifo Amerikafo ne Latino ankorankoro taa bu mmanana a wɔhwɛ wɔn sɛ abusua atetesɛm na wɔwɔ ɔpɛ kɛse sɛ wɔde mmoa bɛma wɔn mma a wɔanyinyin.[46] Mmusuakuw mu nsonsonoe a ɛwɔ nananom a wɔhwɛ wɔn mmanana mu no da amammerɛ mu gyinapɛn ahorow a mmusuakuw ahorow kura mu no adi. Sɛ yɛbɛka no pɔtee a, ɛda adi sɛ Afrika Amerikafo nananom de akwankyerɛ ne nteɛso ma wɔn mmanana esiane wɔn abusua nhyehyɛe a ɛyɛ mmerɛw a abusuafo, abusuafo a wɔnyɛ mogya nyinaa wɔ ɔpɛ sɛ wɔbɛboa wɔn ho wɔn ho nti.[47] Latino mmusua wɔ ɔpɛ a emu yɛ den sɛ wɔbɛbom atra na wɔtaa ne abusua mufo di nkitaho efisɛ wɔn mu dodow no ara yɛ atubrafo anaa awo ntoatoaso a edi kan a wɔwoo wɔn wɔ U.S., wɔtaa tra ase na wɔyɛ adwuma sɛ kuw. Nananom a wɔwɔ Latino amammerɛ mu nso di dwuma titiriw wɔ abusua no fã a ɛma ɛyɛ den sɛ abusua akannifo.[48] Ɛwom sɛ Caucasian nananom ntaa ntete wɔn mmanana de, nanso [49] wɔwɔ adwene anaa honam fam adesoa pii wɔ mmanana hwɛ ho sɛ wɔde toto mmusuakuw afoforo ho a,[50] titiriw esiane sɛ wɔn hwɛfo dwumadi ahorow no nyɛ nea wɔahyɛ da ayɛ, na wɔde wɔn ho to akyirikyiri so kɛse nti anaasɛ ɔhokafo awofoyɛ akwan horow. Nea ɛne no bɔ abira no, Afrika Amerikafo ne Latino nananom de wɔn ho to nteɛso ne nkyerɛkyerɛ awofoyɛ akwan so kɛse na ɛnyɛ den koraa sɛ wobenya adwene anaa honam fam adesoa bere a wɔrehwɛ wɔn mmanana no.