Idia

Ɛfi Wikipedia

Idia yɛ Esigie, a ɔdii hene sɛ Oba (hene) wɔ Edofoɔ mu firi afe 1504 kɔsi afe 1550. [1] Abakɔsɛm akyerɛwfo nim sɛ na Idia te ase wɔ Idah ɔko no mu (1515 – 1516) efisɛ odii dwuma bi a ɛmaa Benin dii nkonim kɛse. [1] Enti wɔaka sɛ Idia ne tumi ankasa a ɛwɔ ne ba no ahengua no akyi. [1] Odii dwuma titiriw wɔ ne ba no sɔre ne n’ahenni mu, na wɔkaa ne ho asɛm sɛ ɔkofo kɛse a ɔkoe a wannyae ansa na ne ba no redi ade ne bere a na ɔredi tumi sɛ Edofo Oba ( ɔhene ) . [2] Ɔhemmaa Idia boaa kɛse ma onyaa abodin Oba maa ne ba Esigie wɔ n'agya Oba Ozolua wu akyi . Nea ɛbɛyɛ na wayɛ saa no, ɔtetee asraafo dɔm sɛ wɔbɛko atia ne nua Arhuaran a na ɛsɛ sɛ ɔyɛ Oba wɔ hokwan ne atetesɛm mu nanso akyiri yi odii nkogu wɔ ɔko mu no. Esigie maame bɛyɛɛ Benin Oba a ɔto so 17 . [3] [4]

Idia dii kan hyɛn adehye fie efisɛ Ozolua, Oba a ofi 1483 kosi 1514 huu no sɛ ɔresaw, na asaw no akyi no, na ɔpɛ sɛ ɔyɛ Idia, ne yere. [5] Idia ne Oba Ozolua waree bere bi ansa na 1504 reba, nanso abakɔsɛm akyerɛwfo nni adwempa wɔ bere pɔtee a wɔwaree no ho. [5] Ne saa nti, Idia awofo boaa ma osiesiee no maa n’asetra a ɛbɛba daakye wɔ ahemfie hɔ denam nnuru bi a wɔde maa no no so . [5] Na wonim no sɛ ɔyɛ onyansafo yiye efisɛ otumi gyee ahengua no maa ne babarima no, na otumi bɔɔ ne ba no ho ban fii n’atamfo te sɛ Arulan (Esigie mpena nua ) nso ho. [5]

Adwene foforo a ɛyɛ anigye a na wonim Idia ne ne “ orhue awotwaa ”—kasasin a ɛkyerɛ sɛ n’awotwaa no tia ɔhaw ahorow. [6] Saa nsɛm a ɛyɛ hu yi ne sɛ ɛnyɛ ne babarima Esigie na odii kan wɔ ahengua no so, mmom mfiase no na Esigie na ɔto so abiɛsa wɔ ahengua no so. [6] Ɛwom sɛ awiei koraa no, na nea ɛne no bɔ abira no, Esigie bɛyɛɛ Oba. [6] Ogidogbo, a odi kan wɔ ahengua no so sɛ Oba no bɛyɛɛ obi a ɔnyɛ mmara kwan so de maa ahengua no efisɛ na wadi dɛm esiane sɛ ɔne ne nuanom, Arulan ne Esigie dii agoru nti. [6] Beninfo susuwii sɛ Idia na ɔyɛɛ eyi ho nhyehyɛe efisɛ na wonim Idia sɛ ɔwɔ nkonyaayi tumi . [6] Eyi nso kyerɛ sɛnea Beninfo susuwii sɛ obetumi asɛe nneɛma na wasɛe nneɛma. [6] Eyi maa Arulan dii akyi wɔ ahengua no so, nanso ohui sɛ Esigie yɛ ahunahuna. [6] Ne saa nti, na Esigie pɛ sɛ okum ne nua no. [6] Arulan huu Esigie sɛ ɔyɛ ahunahuna esiane ne maame Idia nti. [6] Ɛwom sɛ, ade biako pɛ nti a Aruanran ankum ne nua no ne sɛ na onim sɛ Esigie maame, Idia, wɔ nkonyaayi ho nimdeɛ, bere a Arulan nni bi. [6] Wɔayɛ Ɔhemmaa Idia ho mfonini pii efisɛ na Ɔhemmaa Idia gyina hɔ ma Benin ahemman ahemfie amammerɛ no fã titiriw. [6] Afei nso, Idia nyaa nkɛntɛnso kɛse esiane ne bo a wasi nti. [6] Sɛ yɛka ne nyinaa bom a, wɔkaa Idia ho asɛm sɛ ɔyɛ ɔbea a ne tirim yɛ den, ne ho yɛ fɛ, ɔyɛ onyansafo, na ɔyɛ onyansafo. [6]

Esigie de abodin iyoba ( ɔhemmaa ɛna ) sii hɔ na ɔde maa ne maame, ne Eguae-Iyoba (Ɔhemmaa Ɛna Ahemfie). [7] Ɔhemmaa Idia bɛyɛɛ obi a nkurɔfo ani gye ne ho kɛse bere a wosii gyinae sɛ ɛsɛ sɛ wɔde n’anim yɛ ohoni de gyina hɔ ma Nigeria Afahyɛ bi FESTAC ’77, saa na Ɔhemmaa Ɛna no anim baa adwinni mu de besi nnɛ. Na ɛsɛ sɛ wokum no bere a wɔde abotiri ahyɛ ne ba no sɛ Oba akyi, sɛnea saa bere no atetesɛm kyerɛ nanso ne ba Esigie de no kɔɔ kokoam sɛ ɔde ne ho kohintaw dan bi a na ɛsɛ sɛ wɔn a wɔama wɔn tumi sɛ wɔnyɛ saa nkutoo na wɔhyɛn mu mu, ɔyɛɛ eyi wɔ mu ahyɛdeɛ sɛ wɔbɛbɔ ne ho ban na wɔankum no na ɛyɛɛ adwuma kɔsii sɛ ɔtumi yɛɛ nsakraeɛ wɔ atetesɛm a ɛtwaa saa mmara no mu wɔ ɛno akyi no Ɔhemmaa Idia san kɔɔ ahemfie hɔ kwa na ɔne ne ba no boom dii hene boaa no boaa no ma ɔko tiaa honhom ne honam fam wɔ n’atamfo so a ɛboaa him during look is reign as Oba, ansa na ɔrewu no, ɔtetee ne babarima yere wɔ n’akwan so sɛnea ɛbɛyɛ a wobehyia ne kɔ a obiara renhu, a ebia eyi betumi aka sɛ ɔyɛ adwinni fɛfɛ a ɛsɛ sɛ wosua.

Nkonimdi a wodii wɔ Igalafo so[sesa]

Ɛno akyi no, Igalafo a wɔbɛn wɔn no somaa akofo twaa Benue Asubɔnten no sɛ wɔnkɔgye Benin atifi fam nsasesin no so tumi. Esigie dii Igala so nkonim, na ɔsan de ahenni no mu biakoyɛ ne asraafo ahoɔden sii hɔ. Ne maame Idia nyaa nkonimdi ahorow yi ho anuonyam kɛse [8] bere a wobuu n’amammui ho afotufo, ne ne nkonyaayi tumi ne nnuruyɛ ho nimdeɛ sɛ nneɛma a ɛho hia ma Esigie nkonimdi wɔ ɔko no mu no.

Ɔhemmaa Idia ananmusifo[sesa]

Ɔhemmaa Idia mfonini ahorow no yɛ nkae ti kuw bi a wofi mfinimfini mmere mu Benin a egyina hɔ ma Ɔhemmaa Idia, Oba Esigie (r. 1504-1550) maame, a wɔyɛɛ no afeha a ɛto so dunsia mfiase wɔ Benin ahemfie hɔ. Ɔhemmaa Idia mfonini ahorow a yɛaka ho asɛm wɔ ha no bi ne Ɔhemmaa Idia Kɔbere Ti ( Britania Tete Nneɛma Akorae a ɛwɔ London), Ɔhemmaa Idia asonse akataso a wɔde asɛn so ( Metropolitan Museum of Art wɔ New York), ne awiei koraa no Ɔhemmaa Idia asonse akataso ( British Museum in London).

Wɔfow Idia mfonini ahorow pii fii Benin Kuropɔn mu wɔ Britania Benin Akwantu a wɔyɛe wɔ 1897 mu no mu, na mprempren wɔde asie tete nneɛma akorae ahorow wɔ wiase nyinaa. Wɔ Benin Kɔbere afoforo akyi no, wɔafrɛ wɔn sɛ wɔmfa wɔn nsan nkɔ wɔn man mu.

Ɔhemmaa Idia asonse akataso bi a wɔde sie wɔ Britania Tete Nneɛma Akorae no bɛyɛɛ Wiase Abibifo ne Afrikafo Adwinni ne Amammerɛ Afahyɛ a Ɛto so Abien FESTAC a wɔyɛe wɔ Nigeria wɔ 1977 mu no agyiraehyɛde [9]

Wɔ Eddie Ugbomah sini a ɔyɛe wɔ 1979 mu a wɔfrɛ no The Mask mu no, Nigeriani ɔbran no wiaa Ɔhemmaa Idia akataso bi san fi Britania Tete Nneɛma Akorae . [10]

Ɔhemmaa Idia mmofraberem a wɔayɛ ho mfonini wɔ n’adwenem no ne ade titiriw a mmofra nhoma bi a wɔagye abasobɔde a wɔato din Idia of the Benin Kingdom a Ekiuwa Aire kyerɛwee no twe adwene si so.

Kɔbere ti ahorow[sesa]

Ɔhemmaa Idia Kɔbere Ti yɛ kɔbere ti anan a wɔde kae ade a efi mfinimfini mmere mu Benin a egyina hɔ ma Idia, Oba Esigie maame, a wɔyɛe wɔ afeha a ɛto so dunsia mfiase wɔ Benin ahemfie no kuw bi. [11] Wonim ɔhemmaa no ti anan a wɔde kɔbere ayɛ no na mprempren ɛwɔ Britania Tete Nneɛma Akorae a ɛwɔ London, Wiase Tete Nneɛma Akorae a ɛwɔ Liverpool (accession number 27.11.99.8.), [12] Nigeria Ɔman Tete Nneɛma Akorae a ɛwɔ Lagos, [13] ne Berlin Mmusuakuw Ho Tete Nneɛma Akorae . Ɛho hia sɛ yɛhyɛ no nsow sɛ ɛwom sɛ wɔtaa frɛ eyinom "Kɔbere Ti" efisɛ mfiase no na wosusuw sɛ dade adwuma a efi Benin no yɛ kɔbere, na akyiri yi nkutoo na wohui sɛ ɛyɛ kɔbere ; enti nkyerɛkyerɛmu a ɛyɛ nokware kɛse ne "Brass Heads" a Ɔhemmaa Idia yɛe. Saa kɔbere ti yi ka Beninfo adwinni pii a ɛhyɛn Europa adwinni gua so bere a Britaniafo tow hyɛɛ wɔn so akyi no ho, adeyɛ a wɔfrɛ no Benin Akwantu a wɔyɛe wɔ 1897 mu no .

Wɔde ɔkwan a wɔfa so tow wax a ayera no na ɛyɛɛ kɔbere ti no wɔ afeha a ɛto so dunsia mfiase mu hɔ. Mfonini a ɛwɔ Britania Tete Nneɛma Akorae no yɛ ababaa bi a ofi Benin ahemfie, a ɔhyɛ ukpe-okhue abotiri a ɛkorɔn a ɛyɛ nsensanee a wɔde akorade kɔkɔɔ a ɛte sɛ lattice ayɛ no ho mfonini ankasa. Wɔfrɛ ti nhwi no sɛ "parrot's beak" hairstyle na na Iyoba ne ɔko mu panyin kɛse no nkutoo na wɔmaa ho kwan sɛ wɔhyɛ. Nhama abien a wɔde dade ahyɛ mu wɔ aniwa no atifi ne ntam. Eyinom da asɛm a wɔde ano ka a ɛfa sɛnea Idia bɛyɛɛ Iyoba no adi; anansesɛm no ka sɛ na oracle bi aka akyerɛ Idia sɛ ɔmfa nnuru nhyɛ n’ani atifi ntwitwiridii abien so sɛnea ɛbɛyɛ a Oba Ozolua no renpaw no mma ne yere. Afei Oba Ozolua kɔɔ so dii oracle no nsusuwii a edi kan no so nkonim na Idia bɛyɛɛ Oba Esigie maame. [14] Bere a Oba Esigie hyɛɛ sɛ wɔnyɛ kɔbere ti yi na wɔmfa nsi Idia nkaeɛ ahemfie no, ɔhwɛɛ sɛ wɔbɛnya saa ntwitwiridii yi sɛdeɛ ɛbɛyɛ a ɔbɛdi sɛdeɛ Idia bɛyɛɛ Iyoba a ɔdi kan wɔ Benin no anuonyam. [14] Wɔakyerɛw cicatrices anan wɔ aniwa biara atifi . Ɔkwan a ɛyɛ nwonwa ne sɛnea wɔyɛɛ ti anan no kyerɛ sɛ wɔyɛɛ no afeha a ɛto so dunsia mfiase, na Idia babarima Oba Esigie na ɔhyɛɛ, na ahemman kuw a wɔyɛ kɔbere a wɔde tow a Oba a na wadi kan, Oba Ogolua, na ɔde sii hɔ no na ɛyɛe. [14] Ɔhemmaa Idia dii dwuma titiriw wɔ ne ba no asraafo ɔsatu ahorow a edii nkonim tiaa mmusuakuw ne akuw a ɛbemmɛn hɔ no mu. Ne wu akyi no, Oba Esigie hyɛe sɛ wɔnyɛ ɔhemmaa no ti a wɔde hyira ne ho so, na wɔmfa nsi afɔremuka anim anaa Ɔhemmaa Ɛna ahemfie . Wɔyɛɛ ti ahorow no de hyɛɛ n’asraafo nkɔso ne amanne kwan so tumi a wanya no anuonyam. [14]

Britania Tete Nneɛma Akorae ti no, Owura William Ingram na ɔde maa tete nneɛma akorae no wɔ afe 1897.

Akataso a wɔde asonse ayɛ[sesa]

Benin ne Pendant Asonse Akataso[sesa]

Mprempren Pendant Ivory Mask no wɔ The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Benin Ivory Mask a ɛwɔ Britania Tete Nneɛma Akorae

Idia anim yɛ Afrika ahemfo mmea anim a wonim no yiye no mu biako. [15] Ɔhemmaa Idia akataso abien a ɛda so ara wɔ hɔ a wɔde asonse na ɛyɛ . [15] Benin Ivory Mask biako wɔ Britania Tete Nneɛma Akorae bere a Pendant Ivory Mask no wɔ Metropolitan Museum of Art . [15] Ɛkame ayɛ sɛ asonse akataso abien yi ne wɔn ho wɔn ho yɛ pɛ, na wɔyɛɛ saa akataso abien yi nyinaa bɛyɛ afeha a ɛto so 16 mu . [15] Benin asonse akataso no tenten bɛyɛ nsateakwaa akron na ne tɛtrɛtɛ bɛyɛ nsateakwaa anum. [15] Na wɔtaa de nsa a wɔde yɛ asonse akataso no di adwini ne fael a wonni nhyehyɛe biara a wɔde bedi akyi. [15] Obas hyɛɛ ɔhemmaa ɛnanom no ni denam Iyobafo akataso a wɔde asonse ayɛ a wɔde asɛn so a ɔhyɛe de pam ahonhom bɔne no so. Na asonse akataso yi adwuma ne sɛ wɔbɛkae Iyoba Idia, na na afã no pue wɔ afɔremuka bi a wɔahyira so ama no so. [15] Afei nso, na Oba Esigie hyɛ saa akatawia yi bere a na wɔreyɛ guasodeyɛ ahorow . [15] Oba Esigie, ne babarima na ɔhyɛɛ wɔn nsa. [15] Abakɔsɛm akyerɛwfo tumi hu sɛ ampa ara ne Ɔhemmaa Idia a wɔayɛ ho mfonini wɔ saa akatawia yi mu esiane nsensanee abien a ɛne ne ho di nsɛ a ɛkɔ fam wɔ ne moma so wɔ n’aniwa ntam, a wɔde dade abien a wɔde ahyɛ mu gyina hɔ ma wɔ ha no nti. [15] Ebinom asusuw sɛ na wosusuw sɛ nsensanee abien a ɛne ne ho di nsɛ wɔ Idia anim no ne baabi a okura n’anwanwa tumi ahorow no; nanso, eyi ho nkyerɛkyerɛmu foforo wɔ hɔ. [15] Ntrɛwmu abien a ɛne ne ho di nsɛ a ɛbaa Ɔhemmaa Idia anim no, n’awofo na ɛde bae efisɛ na wɔmpɛ sɛ ɔbɛyɛ Oba Ozolua yere. [15] Wotuu wɔn fo wɔ oracle mu sɛ ɛsɛ sɛ wɔde akuru hyɛ n’anim na ama ne ho nyɛ fɛ sɛnea ɛbɛyɛ a Ozolua renware no. [15] Afei nso, ɔsoro oduruyɛfo a ɔwɔ Benin no maa n’awofo de nnuru a wɔde sa yare guu n’akuru no mu. [15] Na saa nnuru a wɔde sa nnuru yi ma awerɛhyem sɛ Oba Ozolua bɛtwe ne ho afi ho. [15] Eyi awiei koraa no antumi anpam Oba Ozolua: ɔtee nka sɛ biribi anyɛ yiye wɔ Idia ho, nanso ɔyɛɛ ntɛm hui sɛ wanya akuru na awuduru, enti otumi maa aduru no yɛɛ nea ɛnyɛ hwee .

Abotiri a ɛwɔ Idia asonse akataso abien no nyinaa so no da Portugal asraafo adi. [16] Wɔ Benin amammerɛ mu no, Portugalfo a wofi po so bae a na wɔwɔ ahonyade pii no maa wɔbɛyɛɛ nnipa a wofi ahonhom atrae mu a wɔbaa sɛ wɔde ahonyade ne tumi bɛbrɛ oba no. Asonse fitaa gyina hɔ ma ahotew na wɔde bata po nyame Olokun ho . Olokun ahonyade ne awo ne oba no yɔnko. Asonse bɛyɛɛ Benin aguadi aguade titiriw bere a Portugalfo aguadifo a wɔtɔɔ asonse wɔ Benin bae no. Afei nso, atɛkyɛ mpataa wɔ akataso no abotiri no ho , a na ɛtra asase so na ɛtra po mu, a egyina hɔ ma oba no nipasu ne ne nyamewa a ɛyɛ abien no. Sɛ yɛka ne nyinaa bom a, abotiri no gyina hɔ ma onipa ne ɔsoro nyinaa . [16] Portugal asraafo ho mfonini yi nso ma yehu sɛnea Europa asraafo wɔ hɔ. [16] Saa akatasoɔ yi nyinaa ho hia Benin paa ɛfiri sɛ ɛma nipadua mu hwɛbea ne Ɔhemmaa Idia a ɔwɔ hɔ. [16] Benin asonse akataso a ɛwɔ Ɔhemmaa Idia so no kyerɛkyerɛ Benin amammerɛ mu na egyina hɔ ma Ɔhemmaa Idia suban a ɛyɛ hu nso. [16] Nsonsonoe ketewaa bi a ɛda saa akataso abien yi ntam ne sɛ Benin Ivory akataso no wɔ kɔla a wɔayɛ no soronko sen Pendant Ivory Akataso no. [16] Benin Ivory akatasoɔ no wɔ nsusuwso a ɛyɛ nwonwa sɛ kɔla bere a Pendant asonse akatasoɔ no wɔ Portugal asraafoɔ adwini. [16] Awiei koraa no, Benin Ivory Mask no wɔ tebea pa mu bere a wɔde toto Pendant Ivory mask no ho no. [16]

Hwɛ nso[sesa]

Nsɛm a wɔde gyinaa so[sesa]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Mbow, Babacar; Ẹbọhọn, Ọsẹmwegie (2005). Benin, A Kingdom in Bronze: The Royal Court Art. Ft. Lauderdale, FL.: African American Research Library and Cultural Center, Broward County Library. ISBN 0-9772041-0-3. OCLC 62534476.
  2. Historical Dictionary of Nigeria by Toyin Falola, Ann Genova, p.160
  3. Egharevba (1968), p. 26
  4. West African Journal of Archaeology, Editorial Board WAJA, p.144
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Mbow, Babacar; Ẹbọhọn, Ọsẹmwegie (2005). Benin, A Kingdom in Bronze: The Royal Court Art. Ft. Lauderdale, FL.: African American Research Library and Cultural Center, Broward County Library. ISBN 0-9772041-0-3. OCLC 62534476.
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 Mbow, Babacar; Ẹbọhọn, Ọsẹmwegie (2005). Benin, A Kingdom in Bronze: The Royal Court Art. Ft. Lauderdale, FL.: African American Research Library and Cultural Center, Broward County Library. ISBN 0-9772041-0-3. OCLC 62534476.
  7. Guinea Coast, 1400–1600 A.D. | Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
  8. Historical Dictionary of Nigeria by Toyin Falola, Ann Genova, p.160
  9. Hicks, Dan (2020). The Brutish museums : the Benin bronzes, colonial violence and cultural restitution. Pluto Press. pp. 196–197. ISBN 978-0-7453-4176-7. OCLC 1220877111.
  10. Hicks, Dan (2020). The Brutish museums : the Benin bronzes, colonial violence and cultural restitution. Pluto Press. pp. 196–197. ISBN 978-0-7453-4176-7. OCLC 1220877111.
  11. Mack, John (2000). Africa, arts and cultures. Briths Museum. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-521727-6. OCLC 48015137.
  12. Kingdon, Zachary. Ethnographic Collecting and African Agency in Early Colonial West Africa: A Study of Trans-imperial Cultural Flows. www.worldcat.org (in English). New York: Bloomsbury Visual Art. p. 132. ISBN 978-1-5013-3793-2. Retrieved 2022-12-07.
  13. Picture of Lagos head Nhwɛsoɔ:Webarchive
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Mack, John (2000). Africa, arts and cultures. Briths Museum. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-521727-6. OCLC 48015137.
  15. 15.00 15.01 15.02 15.03 15.04 15.05 15.06 15.07 15.08 15.09 15.10 15.11 15.12 15.13 15.14 Mbow, Babacar; Ẹbọhọn, Ọsẹmwegie (2005). Benin, A Kingdom in Bronze: The Royal Court Art. Ft. Lauderdale, FL.: African American Research Library and Cultural Center, Broward County Library. ISBN 0-9772041-0-3. OCLC 62534476.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 Mbow, Babacar; Ẹbọhọn, Ọsẹmwegie (2005). Benin, A Kingdom in Bronze: The Royal Court Art. Ft. Lauderdale, FL.: African American Research Library and Cultural Center, Broward County Library. ISBN 0-9772041-0-3. OCLC 62534476.