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Dɛmdi

Ɛfi Wikipedia

Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm yɛ osuahu a ɛba tebea biara a ɛma ɛyɛ den ma obi sɛ ɔbɛyɛ nnwuma bi anaasɛ obenya hokwan a ɛfata wɔ ɔman bi mu.[1]Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm betumi ayɛ adwene, nkɔso, adwene, adwene, nipadua, nkate, anaa nneɛma pii a wɔaka abom. Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm betumi aba fi awo mu anaasɛ wobetumi anya wɔ obi nkwa nna mu. Abakɔsɛm mu no, wɔagyina gyinapɛn ketewaa bi so nkutoo na wɔagye dɛmdi atom —nanso, dɛmdi nyɛ abien na ebetumi aba wɔ su soronko mu a egyina onipa no so.[2]Ebia dɛmdi bi betumi ayɛ nea wotumi hu ntɛm, anaasɛ wontumi nhu wɔ ne su mu.

Amanaman Nkabom Apam a Ɛfa Hokwan a Nnipa a Wɔadi M dɛm Wɔ Ho no kyerɛkyerɛ dɛmdi mu sɛ:

honam fam, adwene, adwene anaa nkate mu ɔhaw ahorow a ɛtra hɔ kyɛ a sɛ ɛne akwanside ahorow di nkitaho a ebetumi asiw [obi] kwan ma ɔde ne ho bɛhyɛ ɔmanfo mu koraa na etu mpɔn wɔ ɔkwan a ɛyɛ pɛ so ne afoforo.[3]

Wɔabu dɛmdi ahorow wɔ ɔkwan soronko so wɔ abakɔsɛm nyinaa mu, denam nsusuwii ahorow a ɛsono emu biara so. Nhwɛsoɔ titire mmienu wɔ hɔ a ɛbɔ mmɔden sɛ ɛbɛkyerɛkyerɛ dɛmdi mu wɔ yɛn man mu: aduruyɛ nhwɛsoɔ ne asetena mu nhwɛsoɔ[4] Aduruyɛ ho nhwɛso no yɛ nsusuwii nhyehyɛe a ebu dɛmdi sɛ aduruyɛ mu tebea a wɔmpɛ a ɛhwehwɛ sɛ wɔsa no yare titiriw. Wɔn a wɔkyerɛ sɛ aduruyɛ mu nhwɛso no taa de wɔn adwene si nea ɛde dɛmdi ba ntini a wobehu so, ne ayaresa biara a wobenya—te sɛ mfiridwuma a ɛboa so. Asetra mu nhwɛso no de dɛmdi si hɔ sɛ anohyeto a ɔmanfo de aba ankorankoro a wonni tumi koro no ara te sɛ ɔmanfo dodow no ara so. Ɛwom sɛ aduruyɛ mu nhwɛso ne asetra mu nhwɛso ne nneɛma a wɔtaa de di dwuma wɔ dɛmdi ho de, nanso nhwɛso afoforo pii wɔ hɔ a ɛkyerɛ dɛmdi ho nsusuwii.

Nsɛmfua pii wɔ hɔ a ɛkyerɛkyerɛ dɛmdi afã horow mu. Bere a nsɛmfua bi wɔ hɔ a wɔde kyerɛkyerɛ nneɛma a ɛkɔ so a ɛfa dɛmdi ho nkutoo no, wɔde afoforo atwe adwene asi wɔn a wɔadi dɛm a wɔbɛbɔ wɔn animtiaa na wɔapam wɔn ho. Nsɛmfua bi wɔ ntease a enye araa ma wobu no sɛ ɛyɛ kasatia. Mprempren akyinnyegye a ɛwɔ hɔ ne sɛ ebia ɛfata sɛ wɔde kasa a edi kan a onipa di kan (i.e. obi a wadi dɛm) anaa kasa a edi kan a ɛkyerɛ sɛ obi yɛ (i.e. obi a wadi dɛm) bedi dwuma bere a wɔreka dɛmdi ne ankorankoro bi ho asɛm no.

Esiane mmubuafo a wɔde wɔn to nkyɛn nti, nneɛma pii aba a ɛma wɔyɛ adwumaden a ɛhyɛ sɛ wɔnyɛ wɔn ade pɛpɛɛpɛ na wonya hokwan wɔ ɔmanfo mu. Wɔn a wɔyɛ mmubuafo ako sɛ wobenya hokwan ahorow a ɛyɛ pɛ na ɛyɛ pɛ wɔ mmara no ase —ɛwom sɛ amammuisɛm da so ara wɔ hɔ a ɛma wotumi hyɛ mmubuafo so anaasɛ ɛma wɔhyɛ wɔn so de. Ɛwom sɛ dɛmdi ho adwumayɛ di dwuma de bubu ableist nhyehyɛe ahorow de, nanso wɔtaa de trope ahorow a nsɛm ho amanneɛbɔfo de di dwuma hyɛ asetra mu gyinapɛn ahorow a ɛfa sɛnea wosusuw dɛmdi ho no mu den. Esiane sɛ adwene a ɛnteɛ a nkurɔfo kura wɔ dɛmdi ho abu so wɔ nnɛyi asetra mu nti, mmubuafo adan akɔ wɔn ho a wɔbɛkamfo so de abɔ mmɔden sɛ wɔbɛsan wɔn akyi atia wɔn a wɔde wɔn to nkyɛn no. Mmofra a wɔagye atom sɛ nipasu a ɛsono sɛnea wonya osuahu a egyina onipa no nipasu afoforo a ɛwɔ afã horow pii so no yɛ nea wɔn a wɔadi dɛm a wɔkamfo wɔn ho kyerɛ no taa kyerɛ. Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm a wɔayi wɔn afi nnipa atitiriw mu no ama wɔanya hokwan ama dɛmdi amammerɛ apue. Bere a mmubuafo a wɔyɛ adwumaden da so ara hyɛ mmubuafo a wɔde wɔn bɛka nnipa atitiriw ho ho nkuran no, wɔayɛ mmeae pii a mmubuafo nkutoo na wɔbɛtra mu de ahyɛ mmubuafo mpɔtam —te sɛ adwinni, sohyial media, ne agumadi

dɛmdi kasa

[sesa]

Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm kasa resakra bere nyinaa, na ne botae ne sɛ ɛbɛyɛ nea obu wom, ɛyɛ nokware, na ɛka obiara ho.[5] Akwan a wɔtaa fa so de kasa a ɛka mmubuafo ho no bi ne:

  • Kasa a Onipa Di Kan: Eyi si onipa no so dua kan, sen sɛ ebesi ne dɛmdi so dua. Sɛ nhwɛso no, "onipa a wadi dɛm" mmom sen sɛ ɛbɛyɛ "obi a wadi dɛm."[6]
  • Kasa a Edi Kan a Wɔde Di Dwuma: Ankorankoro ne mpɔtam binom pɛ sɛ wɔde wɔn ho hyɛ wɔn dɛmdi mu sɛ wɔn nipasu fã titiriw. Sɛ nhwɛso no, "onipa a wadi dɛm" mmom sen sɛ ɛbɛyɛ "onipa a wadi dɛm."[7]
  • Kasa a Ɛnyɛ Akyinnyegye: Sɛ wode kasa a enni afã biara di dwuma a, ɛmma wunsi dɛmdi no anaa onipa no so dua. Sɛ nhwɛso no, "wɔde mmubuafo akongua" mmom sen sɛ "wɔde mmubuafo akongua mu."[8]
  • Kasa Pa: Eyi twe adwene si tumi a obi tumi yɛ so sen sɛ ɛbɛtwe adwene asi anohyeto ahorow so. Sɛ nhwɛso no, "onipa a ɛsono ne tumi" sen sɛ ɛbɛyɛ "onipa a wadi dɛm."[9]

Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm kasa a wɔpɛ wɔ ankorankoro ne mpɔtam hɔfo mu. Nkitahodi a obu wom no hwehwɛ sɛ wobue wɔn ani ma wosua na wɔde kasa a ɛne nea onipa anaa kuw a wɔrekasa akyerɛ wɔn no pɛ di dwuma[10]

Abakɔsɛm

[sesa]

Nnɛyi ntease ahorow a ɛfa dɛmdi ho no fi nsusuwii ahorow a ɛsɔree wɔ nyansahu mu Nimdeɛ bere mu wɔ atɔe fam no mu; ansa na Nimdeɛ no reba no, na wɔde ahwehwɛ foforo hwɛ nipadua mu nsonsonoe[11]

Adanse wɔ hɔ a ɛkyerɛ sɛ nnipa wɔ ansa na abakɔsɛm reba a wɔhwɛɛ nnipa a wɔadi dɛm. Wɔ Windover Archeological Site no, na nnompe no biako yɛ ɔbarima bi a wadi bɛyɛ mfe 15 a ɔwɔ spina bifida. Tebea no kyerɛ sɛ wɔhwɛɛ abarimaa no a ebia na wabubu wɔ n’asen ase no wɔ abɔmmɔfo-aboaboafo mpɔtam hɔ.[12][13]

Wɔammu dɛmdi sɛ ɔkwan a wɔfa so de ɔsoro asotwe ma enti wɔantɔre ankorankoro a wɔadi dɛm ase anaasɛ wɔanyɛ nyiyim antia wɔn esiane wɔn dɛmdi nti. Wɔde nnipa pii yɛɛ adwuma mmom wɔ Mesopotamia asetra mu gyinabea ahorow a nea ɛka ho ne adwuma a wɔyɛ wɔ nyamesom asɔredan ahorow mu sɛ anyame no asomfo.[14]

Wɔ Tete Misraim no, na wɔtaa de poma di dwuma wɔ ɔmanfo mu. Ade a wɔtaa de di dwuma ma wɔn ne sɛ wɔde ma wɔn a wɔn mfe akɔ anim a wɔadi dɛm de boa wɔn ma wɔnantew.[15]

Wɔyɛɛ nsiesiei ahorow a ɛmaa ankorankoro a wontumi nkɔ baabiara no tumi kɔɔ asɔredan ne kronkronbea ahorow a wɔsa yare wɔ tete Hela.[[16]Ne titiriw no, ebeduu 370 A.Y.B., wɔ ayaresa kronkronbea a ɛho hia sen biara wɔ beae a ɛtrɛw no, Asclepius Kronkronbea a ɛwɔ Epidaurus no, anyɛ yiye koraa no, na abo a ɛtra hɔ daa 11 wɔ hɔ a ɛma nsrahwɛfo a wontumi nkɔ baabiara kɔ adan ahorow akron; adanse a ɛkyerɛ sɛ wogyee nnipa a wɔadi dɛm tom na wɔhwɛɛ wɔn, anyɛ yiye koraa no fã bi, wɔ tete Hela[17] Nokwarem no, ebia na Tete Helafo no mmu dɛmdifo wɔ ɔkwan soronko koraa so wɔ nnipa a wotumi yɛ adwuma kɛse ho efisɛ ɛte sɛ nea nsɛmfua a ɛka wɔn ho asɛm wɔ wɔn kyerɛwtohɔ ahorow mu no mu nna hɔ koraa. Bere tenten a mmubuafo a wɔreka ne ho asɛm no da so ara betumi aboa ɔmanfo no, ɛte sɛ nea Helafo no maa wɔn ho kwan.[18]

Wɔ Mfinimfini Mmere no mu no, na wosusuw sɛ adaemone na ɛde abɔdamfo ne tebea afoforo ba. Na wosusuw nso sɛ wɔyɛ abɔde mu nhyehyɛe no fã, titiriw wɔ Owu Tuntum a ɛde ɔhaw ahorow baa ɔmanfo nyinaa mu ne bere a efii ase no mu.[19] Wɔ nnɛyi bere no mfiase no nsakrae bae wɔ hwehwɛ a wɔhwehwɛɛ abɔde mu nneɛma a ɛde honam ne adwene mu nsonsonoe ba, ne anigye a ɛkɔɔ soro wɔ akuw ahorow a wɔhyehyɛ ho: sɛ nhwɛso no, Ambroise Pare, wɔ afeha a ɛto so dunsia no mu no, kyerɛw faa "monsters", "prodigies", ne "wɔn a wɔadi dɛm".[20] Europa Nimdeɛ no sii nimdeɛ a wonya fi ntease mu ne mfaso a ɛwɔ abɔde mu nyansahu so ma nnipa nkɔso so dua no boa ma wɔwoo ahyehyɛde ahorow ne nimdeɛ nhyehyɛe ahorow a ɛbata ho a ɛhwɛ nnipa na wɔkyekyɛ wɔn mu; eyinom mu no, nea ɛho hia ma nnɛyi adwene a ɛfa dɛmdi ho no nkɔso ne guankɔbea ahorow, ayaresabea ahorow, ne afiase ahorow[19]

Nnɛyi adwene a ɛfa dɛmdi ho no gyina afeha a ɛto so dunwɔtwe ne dunkron mu nkɔso ahorow so. Nea edi kan wɔ eyinom mu ne aduruyɛ ho ɔkasa a wɔkae wɔ ayaresabea, a ɛmaa wohuu onipa nipadua sɛ ade a ɛsɛ sɛ wɔde di dwuma, sua ho ade, na wɔsakra no. Eyinom ne nyansahu mu ɔkasa ahorow a ɛhwehwɛɛ sɛ wɔkyekyɛ mu na wɔkyekyɛ mu na, wɔ saayɛ mu no, ɛbɛyɛɛ akwan a wɔfa so yɛ ade sɛnea ɛte daa[21]

Adwene a ɛfa "norm" ho no nyaa nkɔso wɔ saa bere yi mu, na wɔda no adi wɔ Belgiumni akontaabufo, asetra ho nimdefo, akontaabufo, ne nsoromma ho nimdefo Adolphe Quetelet adwuma mu, a ɔkyerɛwee wɔ 1830 mfe no mu sɛ l'homm moyen – onipa a ɔyɛ ɔha biara mufo. Quetelet susuwii sɛ obi betumi afa nnipa su ahorow nyinaa a wɔaka abom wɔ nnipa dodow bi mu (te sɛ wɔn tenten anaa wɔn mu duru) na wahu wɔn nkyɛmu na ɛsɛ sɛ saa akontaabu yi yɛ akontaabu mu gyinapɛn a ɛsɛ sɛ obiara pɛ sɛ ɛkɔ so.[22]

Saa adwene a ɛfa akontaabu gyinapɛn ho yi fa akontaabu a Britain, United States, ne Europa Atɔe Fam aman no gye no ntɛmntɛm wɔ saa bere yi mu no so, na ɛne eugenics a ɛkɔɔ soro no wɔ abusuabɔ[22]. Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm, ne adwene a ɛne sɛ ɛnyɛ ne kwan so, ɛnyɛ nea ɛfata, ne nea ɛteɛ no fi eyi mu[23] Saa nsusuwii ahorow yi a wɔkyekyɛe no da adi wɔ sɛnea freak show no agye din no mu, faako a showmenfo nyaa mfaso fii nnipa a wɔtwe wɔn ho fi saa gyinapɛn ahorow no ho a wɔde kyerɛe no mu[24]

Bere a eugenics nyaa nkɔanim wɔ afeha a ɛto so dunkron no awiei no, wobuu akwanside a ɛte saa sɛ ɛyɛ asiane ma nnipa dodow nyinaa akwahosan. Esiane sɛ wobuu dɛmdi sɛ ɛyɛ obi abɔde mu nneɛma fã na ɛnam so yɛ n’awosu mu agyapade nti, nyansahufo danee wɔn adwene kɔɔ nwura a wotutu te sɛ "wɔtwe wɔn ho fi awosu mu nneɛma ho" so. Wɔkyerɛɛ metric ahorow a wɔde hwɛ sɛnea obi awosu mu ahoɔden te na afei wɔde dii dwuma de pam wɔn a wobu wɔn sɛ wɔmfata no fii wɔn man mu, de sterilize, anaasɛ wɔde wɔn hyɛɛ ahyehyɛde ahorow mu. Na nnipa a wɔadi dɛm yɛ akuw a Nasi nniso no de wɔn ani sii wɔn so wɔ Germany no mu biako, na ɛmaa wokunkum mmubuafo bɛyɛ 250,000 wɔ Okunkɛse no mu.[25]Wɔ Wiase Ko II awiei no, ɛdenam Nasi eugenics nhwɛso so no, eugenics yera fii baguam kasa mu, na dɛmdi a ɛkɔɔ so no yɛɛ biako yɛɛ su ahorow bi a nnuruyɛ betumi adi ho dwuma – sɛ́ ebia ɛnam nkɔanim, ahosiesie, anaa ayaresa so. Wɔ nnɛyi ne nnɛyi abakɔsɛm nyinaa mu no, na wɔtaa bu dɛmdi sɛ ade a efi abusuafo a wodi kan anaa abusuafo a wɔto so abien ntam abusuabɔ mu ba.[26]

Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm ho abenfo nso atwe adwene asi Mfiridwuma mu Ɔsesɛw, ne sikasɛm mu nsakrae a efi feudalism so kɔɔ kapitalism so no so sɛ abakɔsɛm mu mmere a ɛda nsow wɔ mmubuafo ntease mu. Ɛwom sɛ na nyamesom mu gyidihunu bi wɔ hɔ a ɛfa dɛmdi ho wɔ Mfinimfini Mmere no mu de, nanso na mmubuafo da so ara tumi di dwuma titiriw wɔ nkuraase sikasɛm a egyina nneɛma a wɔyɛ so no mu, na ɛmaa wotumi de mmoa ankasa ma wɔ da biara da sikasɛm mu[27]. Mfiridwuma mu Ɔsesɛw ne kapitalism a ɛbae no maa ɛyɛɛ nea enti wɔankyekyere nkurɔfo bio wɔ asase no ho na afei wɔhyɛɛ wɔn ma wonyaa adwuma a wobetua akatua na ama wɔatumi atra ase. Akatua nhyehyɛe no, a wɔde kaa mfiridwuma mu nneɛma a wɔyɛ ho no, sesaa ɔkwan a wɔfaa so bu nipadua ahorow bere a na wɔrebu nnipa sɛ ɛsom bo kɛse wɔ sɛnea wotumi yɛ nneɛma te sɛ mfiri nti[28]Kapitalism ne mfiridwuma mu nsakrae no maa nnipa a "wɔadi dɛm" kuw yi a na wontumi ne adwumayɛfo nipadua anaa adwumayɛ tumi dodow a wɔahyɛ da ayɛ no yɛɛ den yiye. Nea efii mu bae ne sɛ, wobebu mmubuafo sɛ ɔhaw, ɛsɛ sɛ wodi ho dwuma anaasɛ wɔpopa.[27]

Wɔ 1970 mfe no mfiase mu hɔ no, mmubuafo hokwan ahorow ho kuw no sii hɔ, bere a mmubuafo ho adwumayɛfo fii ase kasa tiaa sɛnea ɔmanfo ne mmubuafo di ne aduruyɛ kwan a wɔfa so di dɛmdi ho dwuma no. Esiane adwuma yi nti, wohuu honam fam akwanside ahorow a ɛmma wontumi nkɔ hɔ. Saa tebea horow yi maa wɔadi dɛm wɔ dwumadi mu, na nea mprempren wɔfrɛ no dɛmdi ho asetra mu nhwɛso no bae. Mike Oliver na ɔyɛɛ no ​​wɔ afe 1983 mu, saa kasasin yi kyerɛ nsonsonoeɛ wɔ aduruyɛ mu nhwɛsoɔ a ɛfa dɛmdi ho – a ɛhia sɛ wɔsiesie dɛmdi bi wɔ aseɛ – ne asetena mu nhwɛsoɔ a ɛfa dɛmdi ho – a ɛhia sɛ wɔsiesie ɔmanfoɔ a wɔto obi ano hyeɛ wɔ ase.[29]

Tiɔri

[sesa]

Te sɛ asetena mu akuw pii no, wɔresusuw " dɛmdi" adwene no ho kɛse wɔ nhomanimfo, aduruyɛ ne mmara wiase ahorow, ne dɛmdifo mu.

Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm ho adesua

[sesa]

Adesua mu nteɛso a wɔde wɔn adwene si dɛmdi ho nsusuwii so ne dɛmdi ho adesua, a ɛretrɛw fi afeha a ɛto so aduonu awiei. Afuo no hwehwɛ dɛmdi ho adansiɛ a atwam, mprempren, ne daakye mu, ne adwene a ɛne sɛ dɛmdi yɛ asetena mu nipasu a ɛyɛ den a yɛn nyinaa betumi anya nhumu a ɛma ɛkɔ anim. Sɛnea dɛmdi ho ɔbenfo Claire Mullaney ka no, "Wɔ nea ɛtrɛw mu no, dɛmdi ho adesua hyɛ nhomanimfo nkuran sɛ wɔmfa mmu dɛmdi sɛ ɛsom bo sɛ amammerɛ mu nsonsonoe bi".[30] Afuw no reyɛ nea ɛfa nneɛma ahorow ho kɛse, na ɛtaa ne Nyansapɛ, Abakɔsɛm, Borɔfo adesua, Kasa ho adesua, Mmusuakuw & Abusuakuw Ho Adesua, Bɔbeasu ne Nna Ho Adesua, aduruyɛ mu nnipa ho adesua, nkitahodi, nkyerɛkyerɛ, ne nea ɛkeka ho no di nsɛ. Nhomanimfo a wɔwɔ adwuma no mu de wɔn adwene si nsɛmti ahorow a ɛfa mmubuafo ho so, te sɛ abrabɔ pa, nhyehyɛe ne mmara, abakɔsɛm, mmubuafo mpɔtam hɔfo adwinni, ne nea ɛkeka ho. Nhomanimfo a wɔagye din a wofi adwuma no mu bi ne Marta Russell, Robert McRuer, Johanna Hedva, Laura Hershey, Irving Zola, ne afoforo pii. Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm ho ɔbenfo a wagye din Lennard J. Davis ka sɛ ɛnsɛ sɛ wobu dɛmdi ho adesua sɛ ɛyɛ nteɛso titiriw anaa nteɛso titiriw, na mmom wɔde di dwuma wɔ nnwuma ne nsɛmti ahorow pii mu[30]

Amanaman Ntam Nkyekyɛmu

[sesa]

Amanaman Ntam Dwumadi, Mmofra a Wɔadi M dɛm ne Akwahosan Nkyekyɛmu (ICF), a Wiase Nyinaa Akwahosan Ahyehyɛde no yɛ no, kyerɛ nsonsonoe a ɛda nipadua no dwumadi ahorow (nipadua anaa adwene mu, te sɛ anisoadehu) ne nipadua nhyehyɛe (akwaa akwaa, te sɛ aniwa ne nneɛma a ɛfa ho) ntam. Wɔkyerɛ nipadua nhyehyɛe anaa dwumadi mu sintɔ ase sɛ ɛfa biribi a ɛnteɛ, sintɔ, adehwere anaa biribi foforo a ɛtwe ne ho kɛse fi nnipa dodow gyinapɛn ahorow bi a wogye tom ho, a ebetumi asakra bere kɔ so. Wɔkyerɛ dwumadi ase sɛ adwuma anaa adeyɛ bi a wɔyɛ. ICF no kyerɛw adwumayɛ ho nsɛm a ɛtrɛw akron a ebetumi anya nkɛntɛnso:

  • Nimdeɛ a wosua na wɔde di dwuma
  • Nnwuma ne nea wɔhwehwɛ wɔ ɔkwan a ɛkɔ akyiri so
  • Nkutahodie
  • Nipadua mu nkɔso titiriw, Ofie asetra, ne Wɔn ho a wɔhwɛ (sɛ nhwɛso no, da biara da asetra mu dwumadi ahorow) .
  • Nnipa ntam nkitahodi ne abusuabɔ
  • Mpɔtam, asetena ne ɔmanfo asetra, a adwumayɛ ka ho
  • Asetra mu mmeae atitiriw afoforo

Wɔ biakoyɛ mu ne dɛmdi ho abenfo no, nnianim asɛm a ɛfa ICF ho no ka sɛ wɔahyɛ adwene mu nhwɛso ahorow ho nyansa sɛ wɔbɛte dɛmdi ne dwumadi ase na wɔakyerɛkyerɛ mu, a ɛhwehwɛ sɛ ɛde bɛka abom. Saa nhwɛso ahorow yi bi ne nea edidi so yi:

Aduruyɛ mu nhwɛso

[sesa]

Aduruyɛ nhwɛsoɔ no bu dɛmdi sɛ onipa no haw, a yareɛ, ahodwiriw, anaa akwahosan tebea foforɔ na ɛde ba tẽẽ a enti ɛhwehwɛ sɛ wɔde ayaresa a ɛkɔ so daa wɔ ankorankoro ayaresa a adwumayɛfoɔ de ma. Wɔ aduruyɛ nhwɛso mu no, wɔde dɛmdi no sohwɛ asi "ayaresa", anaasɛ onipa no nsakrae ne ne suban mu nsakrae a ɛbɛma wɔanya "ɛkame ayɛ sɛ aduru" anaasɛ ayaresa a etu mpɔn. Wɔ eyi mu no, ɛsɛ sɛ onipa no nam ayaresa so di wɔn dɛmdi so nkonim. Wɔ aduruyɛ nhwɛsoɔ mu no, wobu aduruyɛ sɛ asɛm titire, na wɔ amammuisɛm mu no, mmuaeɛ titire ne sɛ wɔbɛsesa anaa wɔbɛsesa akwahosan ho nhyehyɛeɛ[31][32]

Aduruyɛ ho nhwɛso no twe adwene si nea ɛde dɛmdi ba ne ayaresa a wobehu so.

Nea ɛde ba

[sesa]

Nneɛma pii wɔ hɔ a ɛde dɛmdi ba a ɛtaa ka da biara da asetra mu dwumadi atitiriw te sɛ adidi, ntadehyɛ, nneɛma a wɔde kɔ baabi foforo, ne ankorankoro ahotew a wɔhwɛ so; anaa da biara da asetra mu dwumadi ahorow a ɛkɔ akyiri te sɛ aguadi, aduan a wosiesie, karka, anaa adwumayɛ. Nanso, mpɛn pii no, sɛnea obi tumi yɛ da biara da asetra mu dwumadi ahorow na ɛkyerɛ nea ɛde dɛmdi ba. Sɛnea Marta Russell ne Ravi Malhotra kyerɛ no, "Ɛda adi pefee sɛ dɛmdi ho 'aduruyɛ' ne nnwinnade a wɔde kyekyɛ nneɛma mu no dii dwuma titiriw wɔ mpaapaemu a wɔde sii 'wɔn a wɔadi dɛm' ne 'wɔn a wotumi yɛ adwuma' ntam no mu."[33] Eyi de dɛmdi si hɔ sɛ a ɔhaw a ɛsɛ sɛ wɔde nnuruyɛ mu di ho dwuma, na ɛno siw yɛn ntease a yɛwɔ wɔ nea dɛmdi betumi akyerɛ ho no kwan.

Wɔ Amerikafo a Wɔadi M dɛm Mmara a wɔyɛe wɔ 1990 mu no atirimpɔw ahorow nti, U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission mmara ahorow no de tebea horow a ɛsɛ sɛ wɔde ba awiei ntɛm ara sɛ ɛyɛ dɛmdi ahorow a wɔahyehyɛ ma: wɔatwitwa, adwene a wɔde si biribi so dodo (ADHD), autism, adwenemhaw a ɛma obi yɛ ade tra so, anifurae, . kokoram, amemene mu yare, asotiw, asikreyare, akisikuru, HIV/AIDS, adwene mu dɛmdi, adwenemhaw kɛse, akwantu a ɛmma wontumi nkɔ baabiara a ɛhwehwɛ sɛ obi tra mmubuafo akongua, ntini mu yare, ntini mu yare, adwenemhaw a ɛma obi yɛ ade tra so (OCD), adwenemhaw a ɛba bere a ahodwiriw akyi (PTSD) , akyi berɛmo mu yare, ne adwenemhaw.[34]

Eyi nyɛ nsɛm a wɔahyehyɛ a edi mũ na opira ne aduruyɛ mu haw pii de dɛmdi ba. Nneɛma bi a ɛde dɛmdi ba, te sɛ opira, betumi asiesie bere tenten na wobu no sɛ bere tiaa mu dɛmdi. Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm a wɔanya no fi dɛmdi ahorow a ɛba mpofirim anaasɛ ɛtra hɔ daa wɔ nkwa nna mu, a ɛne sɛ wɔbɛwo obi a ɔwɔ dɛmdi no bɔ abira. Ebia ɛda adi sɛ wɔrenhu dɛmdi a aniwa nhu.

Nnuru a wɔde sa yare

[sesa]

Aduruyɛ nhwɛsoɔ no twe adwene si ayaresa, ayaresa, anaa nneyɛeɛ a wɔde bɛsan asiesie wɔn a wɔadi dɛm a wɔbɛhwehwɛ so kɛseɛ'[35]

Mfiridwuma a ɛboa

Asɛm titiriw: Mfiridwuma a ɛboa

Mfiridwuma a ɛboa yɛ asɛmfua a wɔde di dwuma wɔ ɔkwan a ɛkɔ akyiri so ma mfiri ne nsakrae (ma obi anaa ɔman bi mu) a ɛboa ma wodi dɛmdi bi so anaasɛ woyi fi hɔ. Nhwɛso a edi kan a wɔakyerɛw ato hɔ a ɛkyerɛ sɛnea wɔde afiri a wɔde yɛ nipadua no dii dwuma no fi anyɛ yiye koraa no afe 1800 A.Y.B.[36]Mmubuafo akongua no fi afeha a ɛto so 17 mu.[37] Curb cut no yɛ nhyehyɛe foforo a ɛfa ho. Nhwɛso afoforo ne mfonini a egyina hɔ, telefon a wɔde kyerɛw nsɛm, keyboard a wotumi kɔ so, nkyerɛwee akɛse, anifuraefo, ne softwea a wɔde hu kasa. Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm taa nya nsakraeɛ a ɛbɛtumi ayɛ ankorankoro (e.g. akwan a wɔfa so siw tics ano wɔ baguam) anaa mpɔtam (e.g. mum kasa wɔ d/Deaf mpɔtam).

Bere a ankorankoro kɔmputa abɛyɛ nea ɛwɔ baabiara no, wɔahyehyɛ ahyehyɛde ahorow sɛ wɔbɛyɛ softwea ne hardware a ɛbɛma mmubuafo atumi anya kɔmputa ahorow. Wɔayɛ softwea ne hardware binom, te sɛ Voice Finger, Freedom Scientific JAWS, Free and Open Source alternative Orca ne nea ɛkeka ho ama mmubuafo bere a wɔanyɛ software ne hardware afoforo, te sɛ Nuance Dragon NaturallySpeaking, mmaa mmubuafo titiriw, nanso wobetumi de adi dwuma de ama akwan a wɔfa so kɔ hɔ no akɔ soro.[38]Wɔyɛɛ LOMAK keyboard no wɔ New Zealand titiriw maa nnipa a wɔadi dɛm.[39] Wiase Nyinaa Wɛbsaet adwumayɛkuo no hunuu hia a ɛhia sɛ wɔde Amanaman Ntam Gyinapɛn a ɛfa Wɛbsaet a wɔbɛtumi akɔ so ama nnipa a wɔadi dɛm na wɔyɛɛ Wɛbsaet a wɔbɛnya ho nhyehyɛeɛ (WAI)[40]Sɛnea ɛte wɔ Dec 2012 no gyinapɛn no yɛ WCAG 2.0 (WCAG = Wɛb Nsɛm a Wɔde Kɔ Akwankyerɛ).[41]]

Asetra mu nhwɛso

[sesa]

Asetena mu nhwɛsoɔ a ɛfa dɛmdi ho no hunu " dɛmdiɛ" sɛ ɔhaw a asetena mu de ba ne asɛm a ɛfa ankorankoro a wɔde wɔn bɛka ɔmanfoɔ ho koraa ho. Wɔ saa nhwɛsoɔ yi mu no, dɛmdi nyɛ ankorankoro bi su, na mmom ɛyɛ tebea horow a ɛyɛ den a wɔaboaboa ano, a asetra mu tebea na ɛde ba. Ɔhaw no ho dwumadie hwehwɛ sɛ wɔyɛ asetena mu adeyɛ na ɛyɛ ɔmanfoɔ asɛdeɛ a wɔbom yɛ sɛ wɔbɛbɔ ɔman a anohyetoɔ a ɛwɔ hɔ ma mmubuafoɔ no sua koraa. Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm yɛ amammerɛ ne adwene nyinaa wɔ adebɔ mu. Sɛnea asetena mu nhwɛso kyerɛ no, hokwan a ɛyɛ pɛ a obi a wadi dɛm/di dɛm betumi anya no yɛ ade a ɛfa nnipa hokwan ahorow ho.[42][43] Wɔakasa atia asetra mu nhwɛso a ɛfa dɛmdi ho no. Bere a wohu hia a asetra mu nhwɛso no ho hia wɔ ɔmanfo asɛyɛde a wosi so dua mu no, nhomanimfo a Tom Shakespeare ka ho kyerɛ nhwɛso no anohyeto ahorow na wɔhyɛ hia a ehia sɛ wɔyɛ nhwɛso foforo a ɛbɛma wɔadi "aduruyɛ ne asetra mu" mpaapaemu no so nkonim. [43]. Anohyeto a ɛwɔ saa nhwɛsoɔ yi mu kyerɛ sɛ mpɛn pii no nnwuma a ɛho hia ne nsɛm a nnipa a wɔadi dɛm hyia no nni hɔ ara kwa, mpɛn pii no ɛnam sikasɛm mu mfasoɔ a ɛsua wɔ mmoa a wɔde ma wɔn mu nti[44]

Ebinom ka sɛ aduruyɛ mu nnipa ho adesua yɛ adwuma a ɛsow aba a ebia wobetumi asiw nsonsonoe a ɛda aduruyɛ ne asetra mu dɛmdi ho nhwɛso ntam no ano.[45]

Asetra mu adansi

[sesa]

Asetra mu adansi a ɛfa dɛmdi ho ne adwene a ɛne sɛ ɛnam asetra mu akwanhwɛ ne ahyehyɛde ahorow so na ɛkyekye dɛmdi mmom sen sɛ ɛbɛyɛ abɔde mu nsonsonoe. Akwan a ɔmanfo ne ahyehyɛde ahorow fa so kyekye dɛmdi a wɔbɛtwe adwene asi so no yɛ nneɛma atitiriw a saa adwene yi de wɔn adwene si so no mu biako.[46] Wɔ ɔkwan koro no ara a abusuakuw ne ɔbarima ne ɔbea nna nyɛ nea wɔde abɔde a nkwa wom asisi hɔ no, saa ara na dɛmdi nso nyɛ saa.

Bɛyɛ 1970 mfe no mfiase no, asetra ho animdefo, titiriw Eliot Friedson, fii ase kae sɛ wobetumi de nkyerɛwde a wɔde hyɛ nkurɔfo din ne asetra mu twetwe adwene adi dwuma wɔ dɛmdi ho nhwehwɛmu mu. Eyi na ɛde asetra mu adansi a ɛfa dɛmdi ho nsusuwii no bae. Asetra mu adansi a ɛfa dɛmdi ho ne adwene a ɛne sɛ wɔkyekye dɛmdi sɛ asetra mu mmuae a wɔde ma wɔ twe a wɔtwe wɔn ho fi nea wɔtaa yɛ ho. Aduruyɛ adwuma no ne nea ɔbɔɔ ayarefo ne mmubuafo asetra mu dwumadi no. Aduruyɛ ho adwumayɛfo ne ahyehyɛde ahorow, a wɔde akwahosan ho nimdeɛ di dwuma no wɔ tumi a wɔde kyerɛkyerɛ akwahosan ne nipadua ne adwene mu gyinapɛn ahorow mu. Sɛ ankorankoro bi wɔ ade bi a ɛde ɔhaw, anohyeto, anaa anohyeto bi ba sɛ obedu asetra mu nkyerɛkyerɛmu a ɛfa akwahosan ho no ho a, wɔkyerɛw onipa no din sɛ wadi dɛm. Wɔ saa adwene yi ase no, ɛnyɛ nipadua no honam fam nneɛma na ɛkyerɛkyerɛ dɛmdi mu na mmom ɛnam akwahosan ho asetra mu nhyehyɛe a wɔtwe wɔn ho fi ho so.[47]

Asetra mu adansi a ɛfa dɛmdi ho no bɛka sɛ aduruyɛ mu nhwɛso a ɛfa dɛmdi ho adwene a ɛne sɛ dɛmdi yɛ ɔhaw, anohyeto, anaa anohyeto no yɛ mfomso. Mmom nea wohu sɛ ɛyɛ dɛmdi no yɛ nsonsonoe a ɛwɔ ankorankoro no mu ara kwa ne nea wobu no sɛ "ɛyɛ nea ɛfata" wɔ ɔmanfo mu.[48]

Nhwɛso afoforo

[sesa]
  • Amammui/abusuabɔ nhwɛso no yɛ ɔkwan foforo a wɔfa so de wɔn ho hyɛ asetra ne aduruyɛ mu nhwɛso no nyinaa mu na wɔde wɔn ho hyɛ mu denneennen. Saa nhwehwɛmu a Alison Kafer de mae yi nkyerɛ sɛnea "ɔhaw" a ɛfa dɛmdi ho no "wɔ adan a wontumi nkɔ hɔ, nyiyim su ahorow, ne adwene nhyehyɛe ahorow a ɛkyerɛ sɛ nea ɛteɛ ne nea ɛtwetwe adwene fi adwene ne nipadua pɔtee bi mu nko" na mmom sɛnea adwene ne nipadua mu dɛmdi da so ara betumi anya nso nsunsuanso a ɛma obi di dɛm. Bio nso, amammui/abusuabɔ nhwɛso no hyehyɛ aduruyɛ a wɔde ma mmubuafo sɛ amammuisɛm wɔ abɔde mu a wɔde ama sɛ ɛsɛ sɛ wobisabisa no nsɛm bere nyinaa.[49]
  • Spectrum model no kyerɛ sɛnea wɔte, sɛnea wɔte nka, ne sɛnea wotumi hu a nnipa yɛ adwuma wɔ ase no. Nhwɛso no si so dua sɛ dɛmdi nkyerɛ ankasa sɛ wɔatew oprehyɛn ahorow so. Mmom no, wɔtaa kyerɛkyerɛ dɛmdi mu sɛnea ahwehwɛde ahorow a wɔde asi hɔ wɔ dɛmdi a ɛkɔ so daa so.[50]
  • Abrabɔ pa ho nhwɛso no kyerɛ adwene a ɛne sɛ nkurɔfo wɔ abrabɔ fam asodi wɔ wɔn ankasa dɛmdi ho.[51]Sɛ nhwɛso no, wobetumi ahu dɛmdi sɛ efi awofo nneyɛe bɔne sɛ efi awo mu, anaasɛ sɛ ɛnte saa a, efi abayisɛm mu.[52]Yebetumi ahu eyi ho nsɛm a wɔka wɔ karma nkyerɛkyerɛ a ɛwɔ Apuei Fam ne Mmere Foforo nyamesom ahorow mu no mu. Ɛsan nso ka adwene a ɛne sɛ dɛmdi ma obi "tumi soronko a ɔde behu, adwennwen, aboro so, yɛ honhom muni".[53]
  • Onimdefoɔ/adwumayɛfoɔ nhwɛsoɔ no de atetesɛm mmuaeɛ ama wɔ dɛmdiɛ ho nsɛm ho na wɔbɛtumi ahunu sɛ ɛyɛ aduruyɛ nhwɛsoɔ no nkorabata. Wɔ ne nhyehyɛe mu no, adwumayɛfo di ɔkwan bi a wɔfa so hu ɔhaw no ne ne sintɔ ahorow akyi (de aduruyɛ nhwɛso no di dwuma), na wɔyɛ ade a ɛho hia de ma mmubuafo no gyinabea tu mpɔn. Eyi ama nhyehyɛe bi aba a tumidifo, ɔsom adwuma a ɔyɛ nnam dodo kyerɛw na ɔyɛ adwuma ma obi a ɔnyɛ hwee[54]
  • Awerɛhosɛm/adɔe nhwɛso no kyerɛ mmubuafo sɛ wɔn a tebea bi ayɛ wɔn ayayade a wɔfata mmɔbɔ. Eyi ne aduruyɛ mu nhwɛso no ne nhwɛso ahorow a nnipa dodow no ara a wonni dɛmdi biara a wogye tom de di dwuma de kyerɛkyerɛ dɛmdi mu na wɔkyerɛkyerɛ mu.[55]
  • Mmara kwan so nhwɛsoɔ no bu dɛmdiɛ sɛ ɛyɛ gyinaesie a egyina botaeɛ so a ɛfa nkyerɛkyerɛmu a ɛfa atypical ho no yɛ mmara kwan so ma asɔremma wɔ mmubuafoɔ kuo no mu. Saa adwene yi ma kwan ma wobu nkyerɛkyerɛmu ne nhwɛso ahorow pii sɛ ɛyɛ atirimpɔw na ebetumi ayɛ adwuma[56]
  • Asetra mu nsakraeɛ nhwɛsoɔ no ka sɛ ɛwom sɛ obi dɛmdi de anohyetoɔ bi ba ɔman a wɔtumi yɛ adwuma mu deɛ, nanso mpɛn pii no ɔmanfoɔ ne nneɛma a atwa ho ahyia no yɛ anohyetoɔ kɛseɛ sene dɛmdi no ankasa.[57]
  • Sikasɛm mu nhwɛsoɔ no kyerɛkyerɛ dɛmdi mu wɔ tumi a wɔde yɛ adwuma a ɛso tew, adwumayɛ a ɛyera a ɛfa ho ne sikasɛm mu nkɛntɛnsoɔ a ɛwɔ ankorankoro, adwumawura ne ɔmanfoɔ nyinaa so[58]
  • Nhwɛsoɔ a ɛma tumi (afei nso, adetɔfoɔ nhwɛsoɔ anaa gyinaesie a wɔboa) ma onipa a wadi dɛm ne n’abusua tumi si ɔkwan a wɔbɛfa so ayɛ n’ayaresa no ho gyinaeɛ. Eyi dan adwumayɛfo no ma ɔyɛ ɔsom adwuma a ne dwumadi ne sɛ ɔbɛma akwankyerɛ na wadi nea ɔrehwehwɛ mmoa no gyinaesi ahorow ho dwuma. Saa nhwɛsoɔ yi "ma" ankorankoro no tumi ma ɔdi n'ankasa botaeɛ akyi[57]
  • Guadiɛ nhwɛsoɔ a ɛfa dɛmdi ho ne hokwan a nnipa kakraa bi wɔ ne adetɔfoɔ nhwɛsoɔ a ɛfa dɛmdi ho a ɛgye mmubuafoɔ ne wɔn a wɔde wɔn ho hyɛ mu tom sɛ wɔgyina hɔ ma adetɔfoɔ, adwumayɛfoɔ, ne abatoɔfoɔ kuo kɛseɛ bi. Saa nhwɛsoɔ yi hwɛ ankorankoro nipasu de kyerɛkyerɛ dɛmdi mu na ɛma nkurɔfoɔ tumi ma wɔyɛ wɔn ankasa nkrabea ho nhyehyɛeɛ wɔ da biara da asetena mu, a wɔde wɔn adwene si sikasɛm mu ahoɔden so titire. Saa nhwɛso yi gyina U.S. Nnipakan ho nsɛm so kyerɛ sɛ nnipa ɔpepepem 1.2 na wɔwɔ wiase a wobu wɔn ho sɛ wɔadi dɛm. "Saa nhwɛsoɔ yi ka sɛ ɛnam nnipa dodoɔ no kɛseɛ nti, nnwumakuo ne aban bɛsom akɔnnɔ no, a ahwehwɛdeɛ piapia no berɛ a nkrasɛm no reyɛ abu so wɔ amammerɛ mu nsɛm titire mu."[32]
  • Adetɔfoɔ nhwɛsoɔ a ɛfa dɛmdi ho no gyina "hokwan a egyina" nhwɛsoɔ so na ɛka sɛ ɛsɛ sɛ mmubuafoɔ nya hokwan a ɛyɛ pɛ na wɔnya nneɛma, nneɛma, ne nnwuma a nnwumakuo de ma. Adetɔfoɔ nhwɛsoɔ no trɛw nhwɛsoɔ a egyina hokwan so no mu denam nyansahyɛ a ɛkyerɛ sɛ nnwumakuo, ɛnyɛ sɛ wɔbɛgye adetɔfoɔ a wɔadi dɛm wɔ mmara ahwehwɛdeɛ ase nko na mmom nnwumakuo no de nsi hwehwɛ, di gua ma, wɔma wɔn akwaaba na wɔde wɔn ho hyɛ adwumayɛ mu dwumadie dwumadiɛ afã nyinaa mu koraa. Nhwɛsoɔ no kyerɛ sɛ ɛsɛ sɛ adwumayɛ dwumadie nyinaa, sɛ nhwɛsoɔ no, wɛbsaet, nhyehyɛeɛ, akwan a wɔfa so yɛ adwuma, asɛmpatrɛ nsɛm, ntɛmpɛ nhyehyɛeɛ, nhyehyɛeɛ, ne dwumadie, ka akwan a wɔfa so nya ne nea wɔde bɛka ho no bom. Bio nso, ɛsɛ sɛ saa akwan a wɔfa so nya ne nea wɔde ka ho yi gyina adetɔfoɔ som ho kwan a wɔfa so nya ne wɔn a wɔde wɔn ka ho gyinapɛn a wɔde asi hɔ a ɛfa nnipa a wɔwɔ ahoɔden nyinaa a wɔde wɔn ho bɛhyɛ adwumayɛ mu ayɛyɛdeɛ mu denneennen na ɛboa so[59]. Wɔ eyi mu no, nneɛma titiriw ne nnwuma titiriw bi bɛyɛ nea ɛho hia, te sɛ akwan a wɔfa so boa, nipadua a wɔde yɛ nipadua no, nnuan titiriw, ofie mmoa, ne asetra a wɔboa.[60]
  • Nsusuwii ahorow di adwemmɔne, nsusuwii hunu, nyiyim, ne animtiaabu a ɛfa dɛmdi ho ho. Nea agye din kɛse no mu biako, sɛnea Weiner, Perry, ne Magnusson (1988) adwuma a ɛne attribution theory kae no, wobu honam fam animtiaabu sɛ wontumi nni so na ɛma mmɔborohunu ne ɔpɛ sɛ wɔbɛboa, bere a, wobu adwene ne nneyɛe mu animtiaabu sɛ ɛte saa wotumi di so na enti ɛma abufuw ne ɔpɛ sɛ wobebu wɔn ani agu ankorankoro a wɔadi dɛm no so.[61]
  • ‘Wiase pɛ ho adwene’ no ka sɛnea wobu obi sɛ ɔfata dɛmdi no ho asɛm. Na esiane sɛ ɛyɛ saa onipa no mfomso nti, ɔhwɛfo nte nka sɛ ɛyɛ n’asɛyɛde sɛ ɔte nka bɔne ma no anaasɛ ɔboa no.[62]

Nsɛmfua a wɔde di dwuma

[sesa]

Kasa a nnipa di kan

[sesa]

Kasa a nnipa di kan yɛ ɔkwan biako a wɔfa so ka dɛmdi ho asɛm a nnipa binom pɛ. Wɔkyerɛ sɛ kasa a nnipa di kan a wɔde di dwuma no ma onii no di dɛmdi no anim. Saa ankorankoro a wɔpɛ kasa a nnipa di kan ka no bɛpɛ sɛ wɔfrɛ wɔn, "onipa a wadi dɛm". Saa kwan yi da adi wɔ mmara atitiriw a ɛfa hokwan ahorow a mmubuafo wɔ ho, a Amerikafo a Wɔadi M dɛm Mmara ne Amanaman Nkabom Apam a Ɛfa Hokwan a Nnipa a Wɔadi M dɛm wɔ ho ka ho.

"Cerebral Palsy: A Guide for Care" a ɛwɔ Delaware Sukuupɔn mu no ka kasa a nnipa di kan ho asɛm:[63]

Amerika Adwene ne Nneyɛe Ho Adesua Fekuw no kwankyerɛfo no ka sɛ, sɛ wɔrekyerɛ obi a wadi dɛm a, ɛsɛ sɛ onipa no din anaa edinnsiananmu di kan, na ɛsɛ sɛ wɔde dɛmdi no ho nkyerɛkyerɛmu di dwuma sɛnea ɛbɛyɛ a wobehu dɛmdi no, nanso ɛnyɛ sɛ wɔresakra onipa no. Nhwɛso ahorow a wogye tom no bi ne "ɔbea a ɔwɔ Down syndrome" anaa "ɔbarima a ɔwɔ adwenemhaw". Ɛsan nso ka sɛ ɛsɛ sɛ wɔkyerɛkyerɛ obi mfiri a ɛtumi sesa mu wɔ dwumadie mu sɛ biribi a ɛboa obi, na ɛnyɛ sɛ biribi a ɛto obi ano hye, sɛ nhwɛsoɔ no, "ɔbaa a ɔde mmubuafoɔ akongua di dwuma" sene sɛ "ɔbaa a ɔte mmubuafoɔ akongua mu".

Wɔde nsɛmfua a nnipa di kan di dwuma wɔ UK wɔ ɔkwan a ɛne "nnipa a wɔn ani nnye" (te sɛ "nnipa a wɔn ani nhu"). Nanso, wɔ UK no, wɔtaa pɛ kasa a edi kan a ɛkyerɛ sɛ obi yɛ onipa sen kasa a nnipa di kan.

Nsɛmfua a nnipa di kan a wɔde di dwuma no ama wɔde asɛmfua tiawa PWD adi dwuma de akyerɛ onipa (nnipa) (anaa nnipa) a wɔadi dɛm (anaasɛ wɔadi dɛm).[64][65][66]Nanso ankorankoro ne akuw afoforo pɛ kasa a edi kan a ɛkyerɛ sɛ obi yɛ onipa de si sɛnea dɛmdi betumi anya nkurɔfo nipasu so nkɛntɛnso so dua. Kasa kwan a wɔfa so de di dwuma no gu ahorow wɔ aman ahorow, akuw ne ankorankoro ahorow mu.

Kasa a edi kan a ɛkyerɛ sɛ obi yɛ onipa

[sesa]

Identity-first kasa ka onipa no ho asɛm sɛ "odi dɛm". Nnipa binom pɛ eyi na wɔkyerɛ sɛ eyi fata asetra mu nhwɛso a ɛfa dɛmdi ho no yiye sen kasa a nnipa di kan, efisɛ esi so dua sɛ ɛnyɛ ne nipadua na odi onipa no dɛm, na mmom wiase a ennye wɔn.[5]

Eyi te saa titiriw wɔ UK, baabi a wɔka wɔ asetra mu nhwɛso no ase sɛ bere a obi a ɔyɛ mmerɛw (sɛ nhwɛso no, sɛ ɔwɔ akyi berɛmo mu opira) yɛ ankorankoro agyapade de, nanso " dɛmdi" yɛ biribi a abɔnten so ɔmanfo nneɛma te sɛ nea enni hɔ na ɛde ba akwan a wɔfa so nya nneɛma.[67]Saa nsonsonoeɛ a ɛda ankorankoro agyapadeɛ a ɛyɛ dɛmdi ne asetena mu agyapadeɛ a ɛyɛ dɛmdi ntam yi yɛ adeɛ titire wɔ asetena mu nhwɛsoɔ no mu. Asɛmfua "mmubuafo" sɛ amammui adansi nso, amanaman ntam ahyehyɛde ahorow a mmubuafo te sɛ Disabled Peoples' International de di dwuma kɛse.

Kasa a edi kan a wɔde di dwuma no nso ne sɛnea nkurɔfo ka nneɛma afoforo a ɛfa nipasu ne ahorow ahorow ho no di nsɛ. Sɛ nhwɛso no:[68]

Wɔ autism mpɔtam hɔ no, wɔn a wɔkamfo wɔn ho ne wɔn ayɔnkofo pii pɛ nsɛmfua te sɛ ‘Autistic,’ ‘Autistic person,’ anaa ‘Autistic individual’ efisɛ yɛte autism ase sɛ ɛyɛ ankorankoro nipasu fã a efi awosu mu – ɔkwan koro no ara a obi fa so ka ' . Nkramofo,’ ‘Abibifo-Amerikafo,’ ‘Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual/Transgender/Queer,’ ‘Chinafo,’ ‘wɔwɔ akyɛde,’ ‘agumadifo,’ anaa ‘Yudafo.’

Saa ara nso na Asotifoɔ mpɔtam a ɛwɔ U.S. pow kasa a nnipa di kan de di kan de gyina kasa a ɛdi kan a ɛkyerɛ sɛ obi yɛ onipa no akyi.[69]

Wɔ afe 2021 mu no, U.S. Fekuw a Ɛhwɛ Nhomasua a Ɛkɔ Anim ne Mmofra a Wɔadi M dɛm So (AHEAD) de gyinaesi a wɔasi sɛ wɔde kasa a edi kan a ɛkyerɛ sɛ obi yɛ onipa bedi dwuma wɔ wɔn nneɛma mu no too gua, na ɛkyerɛkyerɛɛ mu sɛ: "Kasa a edi kan a ɛkyerɛ sɛ obi yɛ onipa no twa ntease bɔne ho mpoa denam ka a wɔka sɛ wɔadi dɛm tẽẽ no so. Kasa a edi kan a ɛkyerɛ sɛ obi yɛ ade no twe adwene si nneɛma ahorow a ɛwɔ hɔ no so wɔ hɔ wɔ sɛnea yɛn nipadua ne yɛn amemene ne tebea horow a enni ano a ɛwɔ hɔ yɛ adwuma, ne dwuma a nhyehyɛe, nhyehyɛe, anaa nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia a wontumi nkɔ hɔ anaasɛ ɛhyɛ nkurɔfo so di wɔ ma obi di dɛm mu."[70]

Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm

[sesa]

Asɛmfua handicap no fi mfinimfini mmere mu agodie Hand-in-cap, a agodifo baanu de nneɛma di gua, na obi a ɔto so abiɛsa a onni afã biara no bu nsonsonoe a ɛwɔ nneɛma no bo a ɛsom no atɛn.[71]Wɔtrɛw adwene a ɛne sɛ obi a onni afã biara anwummere no mu kɔɔ mmubuafo mmirikatu mu wɔ afeha a ɛto so 18 mfinimfini, faako a apɔnkɔ soa emu duru ahorow a egyina nea ɔtemmufo no akontaabu a ɛfa nea ɛbɛma wɔatu mmirika pɛpɛɛpɛ ho no so. Wɔ afeha a ɛtɔ so aduonu mfitiaseɛ mu no asɛmfua no nyaa nteaseɛ foforɔ a ɛne sɛ ɛbɛkyerɛkyerɛ dɛmdi bi mu, wɔ nteaseɛ a ɛne sɛ na obi a wadi dɛm resoa adesoa a emu yɛ duru sene sɛdeɛ ɔtaa yɛ.[72] Enti, saa adwene yi de ka adwene a ɛne sɛ dɛmdi yɛ adesoa, anaa ankorankoro haw, sen sɛ ɛbɛyɛ ɔmanfo haw.[73]

Nneɛma a wobetumi anya

[sesa]

Accessibility yɛ baabi a ade, dwumadie anaa nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia wɔ hɔ a nnipa a wohia no de bedi dwuma. Nnipa a wɔadi dɛm ahorow bi bɔ mmɔden sɛ wobenya nneɛma bi wɔ ɔmanfo mu pɛpɛɛpɛ. Sɛ nhwɛso no, onifuraefo ntumi nkenkan nkrataa a wɔatintim a wɔde tow aba, na enti ontumi nkɔ abatow a ɛhwehwɛ sɛ wɔtow aba wɔ krataa so. Nhwɛso foforo betumi ayɛ sɛ obi a ɔte mmubuafo akongua mu ntumi foro antweri ma enti ontumi nkɔ adan a enni akwan a wɔfa so kɔ hɔ no mu. Wɔahu sɛ akwahosan akuw ne mmeae a wɔyɛ apɔw-mu-teɛteɛ a wobetumi akɔ hɔ no yɛ ɔhaw titiriw[74][75]

Da berɛ

[sesa]

Nsakrae a ɛma akwan a wɔfa so nya nneɛma tu mpɔn. Sɛ nhwɛso no, sɛ abatow nkrataa wɔ anifuraefo nkyerɛwde mu anaasɛ wɔ afiri a wɔde kyerɛw nsɛm kɔ kasa mu, anaasɛ obi foforo kenkan abatow krataa no kyerɛ onifuraefo no na ɔkyerɛw nea wapaw no a, ɛnde na onifuraefo no benya kwan ato aba.

Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm a aniwa nhu

[sesa]

Mmofra a aniwa nhu, a wɔsan frɛ no Hidden Disabilities anaa Non-visible Disabilities (NVD) yɛ dɛmdi a ɛnyɛ nea ɛda adi ntɛm ara, anaasɛ wontumi nhu. Ɛtaa yɛ nyarewa ne tebea horow a enni sabea a ɛsɛe da biara da asetra mu dwumadi ahorow a ɛfata kɛse. Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm a aniwa nhu betumi asiw mmɔden a obi bɔ sɛ ɔbɛkɔ sukuu, ayɛ adwuma, ɔne afoforo abɔ, ne nea ɛkeka ho no kwan. Nhwɛsoɔ bi a ɛfa dɛmdi a aniwa nhu ho ne adwene mu dɛmdi, autism spectrum disorder, adwene a ɛmma obi ntumi nyɛ adwuma boro so, fibromyalgia, adwene mu haw, ayamtu, akisikuru, akisikuru, atiridiinini, ntini mu yare, ne ɔbrɛ a enni sabea.[76]

Wɔbɔ amanneɛ sɛ adwumayɛ mu nyiyim di dwuma titiriw wɔ adwuma a wonnya nyɛ dodow a ɛkɔ soro wɔ wɔn a wɔahu sɛ wɔwɔ adwenemyare no mu.[77]

Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm a ɛba bere ne bere mu

[sesa]

Nnipa a wɔwɔ akwahosan tebea horow te sɛ ntini mu yare, adwenemhaw a ɛma obi yɛ ade tra so, HIV, anaa akisikuru betumi anya bere a wɔn ho atɔ wɔn wɔ yare no bere ntam. Wɔ yareɛ no mu no, tumi a nkurɔfoɔ tumi yɛ nnwuma a ɛfata, te sɛ adwuma, tumi yɛ nea ɛkɔ so bere ne bere mu.[78]

Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm ho adwuma

[sesa]

Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm ho adwuma ankasa ama wɔasan ahwɛ kasa a ɛfata mu, bere a wɔreka mmubuafo ne mmubuafo ho asɛm no. Sɛ nhwɛso no, efi saa bere no, wɔabu ani agu aduruyɛ mu nkyekyem a ɛne sɛ ‘wɔakɔ akyi’ no so, esiane nea ɛkyerɛ bɔne nti. Bio nso, dɛmdi ho adwuma nso ama mmubuafo asan agye kasa a wɔde bu nkurɔfo animtiaa. Mairs (1986)[79] kyerɛkyerɛɛ sɛnea mmubuafo betumi apaw sɛ wɔbɛka wɔn ho asɛm sɛ ‘obubuafo’. Ebia eyi bɛyɛ te sɛ nea ɛyɛ nwonwa sɛ wɔde kasa bɔne a ɛyɛ katee a ɛbata dɛmdi ho redi dwuma de aka wɔn ho asɛm; nanso atirimpɔw no ne sɛ wɔbɛsan agye ‘mmubuafo nipasu’ no afi nnuruyɛfo hɔ, na wɔasan de ahyia mmubuafo kasa a wɔpɛ. Kasa a wɔsan nya a wɔada no adi wɔ atifi hɔ no de ne ho si asetena mu nhwɛsoɔ no mu, berɛ a ɛtwe adwene si sɛdeɛ sɛ ɔmanfoɔ no yɛkyekyere adwene ne adwene a ɛfa dɛmdi ho.

Wɔn a wɔyɛ dɛmdi ho adwuma atwe adwene asi nsɛm a edidi so yi so:

Museum of disABILITY History Buffalo NY.jpg

Hokwan ne nhyehyɛe ahorow

[sesa]

Hokwan ahorow ho kuw

[sesa]
Infinity agyiraehyɛde a ɛyɛ nyankontɔn kɔla no gyina hɔ ma autism spectrum no ahorow ahorow ne neurodiversity movement kɛse no nso.[80]

Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm hokwan ahorow kuw no botae ne sɛ ɛbɛma mmubuafo anya hokwan a ɛyɛ pɛ ne hokwan a ɛyɛ pɛ. Botae pɔtee ne nea wɔhwehwɛ wɔ kuw no mu ne sɛnea wobetumi akɔ hɔ ne ahobammɔ wɔ akwantu, adansi, ne nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia mu; hokwan ahorow a ɛyɛ pɛ wɔ ahofadi asetra, adwumayɛ, nhomasua, ne adan mu; ne ahofadi a wobenya afi ayayade, anibiannaso, ne ayarefo hokwan ahorow a wobu so.[81]Wɔhwehwɛ sɛ wɔbɛhyɛ ɔmanfoɔ hokwan ho mmara a ɛtu mpɔn de abɔ saa hokwan ne hokwan ahodoɔ yi ho ban.[81][82][83]

Na mmubuafo hokwan ahorow ho kuw a edi kan no na ɛwɔ aduruyɛ mu nhwɛso a ɛfa dɛmdi ho, faako a wosii so dua sɛ wɔbɛsa mmubuafo yare anaasɛ wɔbɛsa wɔn yare sɛnea ɛbɛyɛ a wobedi asetra mu gyinapɛn no so, nanso efi 1960 mfe no mu no, hokwan ahorow ho akuw fii ase dan kɔɔ asetra mu nhwɛso a ɛfa dɛmdi ho no so , baabi a wɔkyerɛ dɛmdi ase sɛ nyiyim ho asɛm, na ɛnam so bue kwan ma hokwan ahorow akuw no sɛ wɔbɛfa mmara kwan so anya pɛyɛ[84]

Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm ho nsɛm ne akwan a wɔfa so nya nneɛma a wɔkamfo kyerɛ wɔ kan Soviet Union aman akɛse mu no abɛyɛ nea wɔahyehyɛ na ɛwɔ nkɛntɛnso kɛse wɔ nhyehyɛe a wɔyɛ mu.[85]

Mmofra a Wɔadi M dɛm Atɛntrenee Kuw

[sesa]

Nea ɛrekɔ so afi mmubuafo hokwan ahorow kuw no mu ne Mmofra a Wɔadi M dɛm Atɛntrenee kuw no, a ne botae ne sɛ ɛbɛma mmubuafo asetra atu mpɔn denam ahofadi a wɔbom de di kan a wɔde bedi kan so, a ɛne mmara mu nsakrae ne ɔmanfo hokwan ahorow a wɔde di kan wɔ amanne kwan so no bɔ abira. Saa nhyehyeɛ yi a wɔfrɛ no "asorɔkye a ɛtɔ so mmienu" a ɛfa mmubuafoɔ hokwan ho no hwehwɛ sɛ ɛbɛhwehwɛ nhyɛsoɔ nhyehyɛeɛ bebree a ɛne ableism, te sɛ atubrafoɔ, aborɔfoɔ tumidi, ne heteropatriarchal kapitalism abɔ mu[86]. Asɛmfua "Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm Atɛntrenee" no, LGBTQ mmea a wɔadi dɛm a wɔn kɔla yɛ kɔkɔɔ, Mia Mingus, Patricia Berne, ne Stacey Milbern, a wɔhwehwɛɛ sɛ wɔbɛkyekyere kuw bi a wɔko tia ableist a wosi nkitahodi so dua kɛse sen mmubuafo hokwan atitiriw, sɛnea ɛte wɔ mfinimfini no na wɔde bae wɔ afe 2005 mu nne ahorow a wɔde ato nkyɛn. Wɔn kuw, Disability Justice Collective, nso ka mmubuafo a wɔagye din te sɛ Sebastian Margaret, Leroy F. Moore Jr., a wonim no yiye wɔ n’anwensɛm ne Krip Hop kuw no a ɔhyehyɛɛ, ne Eli Clare a wonim no yiye sɛ ɔmaa nipadua adwene ho adwene no gyee din wɔ mu no ho dɛmdi ho adesua.

Apam a Ɛfa Hokwan a Nnipa a Wɔadi M dɛm Wɔ Ho

[sesa]

Wɔ December 13, 2006 no, Amanaman Nkabom no penee Apam a Ɛfa Hokwan a Nnipa a Wɔadi M dɛm Wɔ, afeha a ɛto so 21 yi mu nnipa hokwan ho apam a edi kan a wɔde bɛbɔ hokwan ne hokwan ahorow a wiase a wobu akontaa sɛ wɔyɛ mmubuafo ɔpepem 650 wɔ no ho ban na wɔama anya nkɔso no so wɔ ɔkwan a ɛfata so.[87] . Ɛde besi January 2021 no, aman 182 na wɔagye atom anaasɛ wɔagye atom sɛ wɔbɛka apam no ho.[88]Wɔhwehwɛ sɛ aman a wɔde wɔn nsa hyɛ apam no ase no gye ɔman mmara tom, na woyi dedaw no fi hɔ, sɛnea ɛbɛyɛ a sɛ nhwɛso no, nnipa a wɔadi dɛm benya hokwan a ɛyɛ pɛ wɔ nhomasua, adwuma, ne amammerɛ asetra mu; de kɔ hokwan a ɔwɔ sɛ ɔwɔ agyapade na onya agyapade; sɛ wɔrennyɛ nyiyim wɔ aware mu, ne nea ɛkeka ho; na wɔrenyɛ nnipa a wɔmpɛ wɔ aduruyɛ mu sɔhwɛ ahorow mu. UN mpanyimfo, a Ɔmanpanyin a ɔhwɛ Hokwan a Nnipa Wɔ so ka ho, aka mmara no ho asɛm sɛ egyina hɔ ma nhwɛso nsakrae wɔ adwene a ɛfa mmubuafo ho adwene a egyina hokwan ahorow so kɛse a ɛne asetra mu nhwɛso hyia no mu.[87]

Amanaman Ntam Afe a Wɔde Ma Mmofra a Wɔadi M dɛm

[sesa]

Wɔ afe 1976 mu no, Amanaman Nkabom no fii ase yɛɛ nhyehyɛe maa ne Amanaman Ntam Afe a Wɔde Ma Mmofra a Wɔadi M dɛm (1981),[89]akyiri yi wɔsesaa ne din yɛɛ no ​​Amanaman Ntam Afe a Wɔde Ma Mmofra a Wɔadi M dɛm. Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm ho adwumayɛfo binom de Afe no sii ntɛnkyea ahorow so dua, te sɛ Australia a wɔde wɔn ani sii ahoɔfɛ akansi ahorow so sɛnea ɛbɛyɛ a, wɔ ɔdeyɛfo Leslie Hall nsɛm mu no, "wɔbɛkasa atia ahoɔfɛ ho adwene no" na "wɔapo adɔe abrabɔ pa no.[90]The UN Mmofra a Wɔadi M dɛm Mfe Du (1983–1993) no daa Wiase Nyinaa Dwumadie a Ɛfa Mmofra a Wɔadi M dɛm ho adi Wɔ afe 1979 mu no, na Frank Bowe nko ara na ɔwɔ dɛmdi a ogyina hɔ ma ɔman biara wɔ IYDP-1981 nhyehyɛɛ mu a wɔn ankasa yɛ ankorankoro a wɔadi dɛm.Wɔde mfe du no too mu wɔ ɔkasa bi a Robert Davila mae wɔ Amansan Nhyiam no anim Wɔ 1984 mu no, UNESCO gyee mum kasa toom sɛ wɔmfa nni dwuma wɔ mmofra a wɔyɛ asotifo ne mmerante ne mmabaa nhomasua mu.

Nhyehyɛe ahorow a ɛwɔ kan Soviet Union amansin mu

[sesa]

UN nhyehyɛe ne OSCE yɛ adwuma de nhyehyɛe ne nhyehyɛe ahorow a ɛwɔ aman a na ɛka kan Soviet Union ho no ne Apam a Ɛfa Hokwan a Nnipa a Wɔadi M dɛm Wɔ Ho no hyia.[91]

Amammui mu nsɛm

[sesa]
Iraqni bea bi a wadi mfe 28 a ɔhweree ne nan abien nyinaa wɔ Iraq Ko no mu wɔ afe 2005 mu

Amammui mu hokwan ahorow, asetra mu nkabom ne ɔman bayɛ aba anim wɔ aman a wɔanya nkɔso ne aman a afei na wɔrenya nkɔso bi mu. Nsɛm bi mu no, akyinnyegye no akɔ akyiri asen ɛka a wosusuw sɛ wɔbɔ wɔ mmubuafo a wɔde wɔn ho to wɔn so a wɔbɛhwɛ wɔn so ho dadwen so akɔhwehwɛ akwan a etu mpɔn a wɔbɛfa so ahwɛ ahu sɛ mmubuafo betumi de wɔn ho ahyɛ ɔmanfo mu na wɔaboa wɔ asetra mu nneɛma nyinaa mu.

Wɔ aman a afei na wɔrenya nkɔsoɔ mu, baabi a mmubuafoɔ a wɔbu akontaa sɛ ɔpepem 650 no mu dodoɔ no ara te no, adwuma kɛseɛ ho hia na wɔde adi nsɛm a ɛhaw adwene a ɛfiri akwan a wɔbɛfa so anya ne nwomasua so kɔsi wɔn ankasa tumi, adwuma a wɔde hwɛ wɔn ho, ne nea ɛboro saa so.[92]

Wɔ mfeɛ du du kakraa a atwam no mu no, mmɔden a mmubuafoɔ hokwan ho adwumayɛfoɔ a wɔwɔ wiase nyinaa abɔ, a wɔde wɔn adwene asi ɔman mma a wɔdi mu a wɔbɛnya ama mmubuafoɔ so no, aba adesua mu adesua ase na wɔanya ɔmanfoɔ agye atom kakra wɔ mmeaeɛ pii, te sɛ United States[93][94]

Akwanside ahorow wɔ aman pii mu wɔ adwuma a edi mũ a wobenya mu na ɛsono sɛnea ɔmanfo adwene wɔ mmubuafo ho.[95]

Teetee

[sesa]

Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm no ba bere a wɔyɛ obi ayayade wɔ honam fam, sikasɛm mu, ano anaa adwene mu esiane onipa a wadi dɛm nti. Sɛnea dɛmdi pii ntumi nhu (sɛ nhwɛso no, ayamtu, adesua mu dɛmdi) no, ayayadefo binom ntumi mfa ntease nkyerɛ dɛmdi a ɛnyɛ nipadua mu de no a ɛho hia sɛ wɔte ase, wɔboa wɔn, ne nea ɛkeka ho.[96][97]

Bere a dɛmdi a abu so ne ɛka a wɔbɔ wɔ dɛmdi a wɔboa ho no kɔ soro bere a aduruyɛ mu nkɔso ne nkwa tenten wɔ ɔkwan a ɛkɔ akyiri so no, ɔmanfo afã yi bɛyɛ nea ɛho hia kɛse wɔ amammuisɛm mu. Sɛnea amammui akuw ne wɔn a wɔpaw wɔn a wɔadi dɛm di no betumi abɛyɛ ade a wɔde susuw amammui kuw bi ntease wɔ dɛmdi ho, titiriw wɔ asetra mu nhwɛso a ɛfa dɛmdi ho no mu.[98]

Nsiakyibaa

[sesa]

Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm ho mfasoɔ, anaa dɛmdifoɔ pɛnhyen sika, yɛ dɛmdi ho insurance titire a aban nnwumakuo de ma nnipa a wɔntumi nyɛ adwuma bere tiaa bi anaa daa ɛnam dɛmdi nti. Wɔ U.S. no, wɔde dɛmdi ho mfaso no ma wɔ Supplemental Security Income kuw no mu. Wɔ Canada no, ɛwɔ Canada Pension Nhyehyɛe no mu.[99] Wɔ ɔman no nyinaa mu ɔsatuo tenten bi a nnipa ɔpehaha pii na wɔde wɔn ho hyɛɛ mu akyi no, wɔde Ɔman Mmofra a Wɔadi M dɛm Insurance Nhyehyɛeɛ no sii hɔ wɔ Australia wɔ afe 2013 mu de tuaa mmoa dodoɔ bi.Wɔ aman foforɔ so no, wɔbɛtumi de mmubuafoɔ mfasoɔ ama wɔ asetena mu ahobanbɔ nhyehyɛeɛ ase.[100]

Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm pɛnhyen sika ho ka renya nkɔanim bere nyinaa wɔ Atɔe Fam aman mu, titiriw wɔ Europa ne United States. Wɔbɔɔ amanneɛ sɛ, wɔ UK no, sika a wɔsɛee wɔ mmubuafo pɛnhyen sika ho no yɛ 0.9% wɔ ɔman no mu nneɛma nyinaa mu (GDP) wɔ 1980 mu; mfe aduonu akyi no na adu GDP mu 2.6%[97][101] Nhwehwɛmu pii abɔ amanneɛ sɛ abusuabɔ bi da adwuma a obi nkɔ adwuma esiane yare nti ne asiane a ɛkɔ soro a ɛwɔ daakye dɛmdi pɛnhyen sika ntam.[102]

Nhwehwɛmu bi a nhwehwɛmufoɔ a wɔwɔ Denmark yɛeɛ kyerɛ sɛ wɔbɛtumi de nsɛm a ɛfa nna a wɔn ankasa bɔɔ amanneɛ sɛ wɔankɔ adwuma esiane yareɛ nti no adi dwuma de ahunu akuo a wɔbɛtumi anya mmubuafoɔ pɛnhyen daakye no yie.[101]Saa nhwehwɛmu ahorow yi betumi ama nsɛm a mfaso wɔ so ama nhyehyɛeyɛfo, mpanyimfo a wɔhwɛ nsɛm so, adwumawuranom, ne nnuruyɛfo.

Wɔ Switzerland no, wɔayɛ asetra mu nhyehyɛe ahorow a ɛfa dɛmdi ho no foforo kɛse wɔ mfe aduonu a atwam no mu denam sika dodow a wɔde ma a wɔtew so ne adwumayɛ mu ahosiesie ho nhyehyɛe ahorow a wɔde di dwuma kɛse no so. Nhwehwɛmu bi a wɔde nsɛm a wobisabisaa ankorankoro a wɔde wɔn ho ahyɛ nhyehyɛe ahorow a Switzerland mmubuafo insurance de asi hɔ mu no si wɔn adwenem naayɛ ne wɔn haw ahorow a ɛfa wɔn gyinabea wɔ ɔmanfo mu, ne sɛnea wɔyɛ wɔn ade wɔ mmubuafo insurance de wɔn ho gye mu no so dua.[103][104]

Ankorankoro, mmubuafo insurance a wɔde hwehwɛ mfaso di dwuma wɔ sika a wɔde ma mmubuafo no mu, nanso nhyehyɛe ahorow a wɔde ahyɛ ɔman no mu no ne ahobammɔ a ɛkyere wɔn a wɔhwehwɛ sika no mu dodow no ara.

Adwumafa

[sesa]

Nhwehwɛmu ahorow ada abusuabɔ bi a ɛda dɛmdi ne ohia ntam adi. Nea ɛda nsow ne sɛ nnwuma a wɔde ma mmubuafo no ho yɛ na. Marta Russell hyɛ no nsow sɛ "[ade] titiriw a wogyina so hyɛ mmubuafo (wɔn a wobetumi de dabere ayɛ adwuma) ne sɛ wɔayi wɔn afi nnipa a wɔde wɔn di dwuma sɛ adwumayɛfo a wotua wɔn akatua mu."[105]

Adwene mu Mmofra a Wɔadi M dɛm

[sesa]

Aman pii wɔ nhyehyeɛ a ɛboa nnipa a wɔn adwene mu yɛ wɔn naa (ID) ma wɔnya nimdeɛ a ɛhia wɔ adwumayɛfoɔ mu.[106]Dwumadi ahorow a ɛtete saa no bi ne adwumayɛbea ahorow a wɔde dabere ne mpanyimfo dabere nhyehyɛe ahorow. Dwumadi ahorow a wɔde dabere ayɛ no yɛ awia dwumadi te sɛ turoyɛ, nneɛma a wɔyɛ, ne nneɛma a wɔboaboa ano. Saa dwumadie yi ma nnwuma a ɛfa daa ho a ɛno nso ma IDfoɔ nya osuahu ansa na wɔakɔ adwuma mu no yɛ mmerɛ. Saa ara nso na mpanyimfo dabere nhyehyɛe ahorow nso ka awia dwumadi ahorow ho. Nanso, saa dwumadie yi gyina nwomasua tebea a IDfoɔ tumi de wɔn ho hyɛ nkyerɛkyerɛ, nipadua, ne nkitahodiɛ mu nnwuma a ɛboa ma nkitahodiɛ, nkaeɛ, ne asetena mu nimdeɛ nyinaa yɛ mmerɛ. Bio nso, mpanyimfo dabere nhyehyɛe ahorow yɛɛ mpɔtam hɔ dwumadi ahorow ho nhyehyɛe denam afuw mu akwantu ho nhyehyɛe a wɔyɛe wɔ ɔmanfo mmeae (e.g. mmoa yɛmmea, ne sinidan ahorow) so. Ɛmfa ho sɛ nhyehyɛe abien no nyinaa de nimdeɛ a ɛho hia ma nnipa a wɔadi dɛm wɔ adwene mu ansa na wɔakɔ adwuma mu no, nhwehwɛmufo ahu sɛ IDfo pɛ sɛ wɔde wɔn ho hyɛ adwumayɛ a ɛka mpɔtam hɔfo ho mu[106] Wɔde adwumayɛ hokwan ahorow a ɛka mpɔtam hɔ ma de ID nnipa a akatua a ɛba fam anaa nea ɛboro saa, wɔ nnwuma ahorow mu fi adetɔfo som, akyerɛwfo, ahotew, ahɔhoyɛ ne nneɛma a wɔyɛ. ID adwumayɛfoɔ ne adwumayɛfoɔ a wɔnni dɛm a wɔtumi boa wɔn wɔ nteteeɛ mu no yɛ adwuma. Nneɛma abiɛsa a wobetumi apaw no nyinaa ma nnipa a wɔn adwene mu yɛ wɔn naa nya asetra mu nimdeɛ a ɛho hia wɔ da biara da asetra mu na wɔde di dwuma. Nanso, wɔmfa nhyɛ bɔ sɛ ID adwumayɛfo no benya ayaresa te sɛ adwumayɛfo a wonni ID no; sɛnea Lindstrom ne ne mfɛfo kyerɛ no, adwumayɛfo a wɔaka abom wɔ mpɔtam hɔ no ntaa nnya sika a wɔma wɔn so, na 26% pɛ na wotumi kura bere nyinaa adwuma mu.[107]

Adwumayɛfo a wɔyɛ den a wobenya no de nsɛnnennen foforo ba. Nhwehwɛmu bi a wotintimii wɔ Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disability mu no kyerɛe sɛ ɛwom sɛ adwuma a wobenya no betumi ayɛ den de, nanso adwuma a wɔbɛma agyina pintinn no yɛ den kɛse mpo.[108]Chadsey-Rusch hyɛɛ nyansa sɛ adwuma a wobenya ama ID nnipa hwehwɛ sɛ wonya nneɛma a wɔyɛ ho nimdeɛ a ɛfata ne asetra mu nimdeɛ a etu mpɔn.[108] Nneɛma afoforo a ɛma obi hwere adwuma ne nhyehyɛe mu nneɛma ne adwumayɛfo ne adwumayɛbea a wɔde wɔn ho hyɛ mu. Sɛnea Kilsby kae no, nhyehyɛe mu nneɛma kakraa bi betumi aka nneɛma pii a ɛwɔ adwuma bi mu, te sɛ nnɔnhwerew dodow a anohyeto wom a wɔma kwan ma obi a ɔwɔ ID yɛ adwuma no. Eyi de tua ka, sɛnea Fabian ne afoforo kyerɛ no, ma wonnya hokwan ne wɔn mfɛfo adwumayɛfo nya abusuabɔ anaasɛ wɔde wɔn ho bɛbɔ adwuma yiye. Ne nyinaa mu no, mpɛn pii no, wogyaw wɔn a wontumi mma adwuma bi nnyina pintinn no abam bu. Sɛnea nhwehwɛmu koro no ara a JARID yɛe kyerɛ no, nnipa pii a wɔde wɔn ho hyɛɛ mu no hui sɛ sɛ wɔde toto wɔn mfɛfo adwumayɛfo ho a, na wɔanya bere a ɛboro so wɔ wɔn nna nyinaa mu, efisɛ na wonni adwuma. Na wɔwɔ anidaso a enni hɔ ne huammɔdi ho nkate nso. Sɛnea U.S. Ɔman Ahyehyɛde a Ɛhwɛ Mmofra a Wɔadi M dɛm kyerɛ no, ɛnyɛ sɛ IDfo hyia abasamtu bere nyinaa nko, na mmom pii te ohia ase, efisɛ wontumi nnya adwuma anaasɛ wɔmma ɛyɛ den ne esiane nneɛma a ɛto adwumayɛfo anohyeto a wɔde to ID adwumayɛfo so nti.[107] Eyi mma IDfo ntumi nhwɛ wɔn ho, a nneɛma atitiriw te sɛ aduan, ayaresa, kar, ne adan ka ho.

Pieter Bruegel d. Ä. 024.jpg

Ohia

[sesa]

Ɛkame ayɛ sɛ ohia dodow a ɛwɔ nnipa a wɔadi dɛm a wɔadi mfe a wɔde yɛ adwuma mu no boro nnipa a wonni dɛm de so mmɔho abien ne fã. Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm ne ohia betumi ayɛ kuw bɔne, a honam fam akwanside ne dɛmdi ho animtiaabu ma ɛyɛ den kɛse sɛ wobenya sika, na ɛno nso ma akwahosan ho nhyehyɛe ne nneɛma afoforo a ɛho hia ma asetra a ahoɔden wom a wobenya no so tew[109]. Wɔ aman a wonni akwahosan ne asetra mu nnwuma a ɔman no tua ho ka mu no, obi a wadi dɛm a wɔbɛtra ase no betumi ahwehwɛ sɛ wɔsɛe sika wɔ nnuru ne akwahosan ho nsrahwɛ a wɔtaa kɔ, ankorankoro mmoa a wɔde ma wɔ fie, ne mfiri ne ntade a wɔde sesa nneɛma, ne asetra mu ka a wɔtaa bɔ no ho. Wiase amanneɛbɔ a ɛfa dɛmdi ho no kyerɛ sɛ mmubuafo nyinaa mu fã ntumi ntua akwahosan ho ka, sɛ wɔde toto nnipa a wɔadi dɛm nkyem abiɛsa mu biako ho a[110] Wɔ aman a ɔmanfoɔ nnwuma nni mu mma mpaninfoɔ a wɔadi dɛm no, wɔn mmusua bɛtumi adi hia.[111]

Atoyerɛnkyɛm

[sesa]

Nhwehwɛmu ho nimdeɛ sua, nanso amanneɛbɔ pii a ɛyɛ anansesɛm, a ɛfa nea ɛba bere a asiane ahorow ka mmubuafo no ho[112][113] Ankorankoro a wɔadi dɛm no, asiane ahorow ka wɔn kɛse.[112][114] Wɔn a wɔadi dɛm wɔ nipadua mu no betumi akɔ asiane mu bere a wɔretu afi hɔ no sɛ mmoa nni hɔ a. Ankorankoro a wɔn adwene mu yɛ wɔn naa no betumi apere sɛ wɔbɛte akwankyerɛ a ɛsɛ sɛ wodi akyi sɛ asiane bi si a[114][115][116] Saa nneɛma yi nyinaa betumi ama asiane a ɛsakra wɔ asiane tebea horow a ɛwɔ ankorankoro a wɔadi dɛm mu no akɔ soro.[117]

Nhwehwɛmu nhwehwɛmu ada no adi bere nyinaa sɛ wɔyɛ nyiyim tia ankorankoro a wɔadi dɛm wɔ asiane kyinhyia no fã ahorow nyinaa mu.[112] Anohyeto a ɛtaa ba ne sɛ nkurɔfo ntumi nkɔ adan anaa kar mu honam fam, na wɔsan nso nya nnwuma a ɛfa atoyerɛnkyɛm ho.[112] Saa nnipa yi a wɔayi wɔn afi mu no fã bi fi ntetee a ɛfa dɛmdi ho a wɔmfa mma ntɛmpɛ ho nhyehyɛefo ne atoyerɛnkyɛm ho mmoa adwumayɛfo.[118]

Mmofra a wɔadi dɛm wɔ ɔmanfo mu

[sesa]

Mpanyinyɛ

[sesa]

Ɛkame ayɛ sɛ nipadua mu dɛmdi ne adwene mu tebea horow a ɛsakra no yɛ nea nnipa hu wɔ baabiara bere a wɔrenyin no. Wɔtaa bu nnipa a wɔn mfe akɔ anim ho animtiaa sɛ wɔadi dɛm kɛse. Kathleen Woodward a ɔkyerɛwee wɔ Key Words for Disability Studies mu no kyerɛkyerɛ adeyɛ no mu sɛnea edidi so yi:

Wɔde onyin di dwuma wɔ kasakoa kwan so – ɛtɔ mmere bi a ɛyɛ hu – sɛ ntease a ɛho hia a enti ɛsɛ sɛ dɛmdi yɛ nea yɛn nyinaa ani gye ho kɛse (yɛn nyinaa renyin, awiei koraa no yɛn nyinaa bedi dɛm), na ɛnam so hyɛ onyin ho adwene a ɛsɛe ade na ɛhyɛ so sɛ osuahu a ɛfa ɔsɛe ne ɔsɛe ho nkutoo. Nanso wɔmfaa wɔn adwene nsi onyin ne dɛmdi a wɔde hyɛ mu no so kɛse.[119]

Wɔ Feminist, Queer, Crip mu no, Alison Kafer ka onyin ne dadwen a ɛbata ho ho asɛm. Sɛnea Kafer kyerɛ no, saa dadwen yi fi adwene a ɛfa sɛnea nneɛma te daa ho. Ɔka sɛ:

Sɛ nhwɛso no, wobetumi ahu onyin ho dadwen sɛ ɛyɛ nhyɛ sɛ obi tumi yɛ adwuma/adwene a otumi yɛ ho sɛnkyerɛnne, sɛnea wobetumi ahu mmɔden a wɔbɔ sɛ wɔde onyin hormone "sa" mmofra a wɔyɛ tiaa kakra sen sɛnea wɔkyekyem pɛpɛɛpɛ no yare no; wɔ tebea abien no nyinaa mu no, ɛnyɛ nea ɛho hia sɛ nnipa a wɔde wɔn ho hyɛ mu no yɛ dɛmdi, nanso akyinnye biara nni ho sɛ amammerɛ mu adwene a ɛfa sɛnea wɔyɛ ade daa ne ɔkwan a ɛfata ne ɔkwan a wɔfa so yɛ adwuma ho no nya wɔn so nkɛntɛnso[120]

Ɔmanfo gyinapɛn ahorow

[sesa]

Wɔ tebea horow a wɔn nsonsonoe da adi mu no, nnipa a wɔadi dɛm taa hyia animtiaabu. Nkurɔfo taa yɛ wɔn ade wɔ mmubuafo a wɔwɔ hɔ no ho de ehu, mmɔborohunu, animtiaabu, ani a wɔde hyɛ mu, akyide, anaa animtiaabu. Saa nneyɛe yi betumi, na ɛtaa yɛ saa, ayi nnipa a wɔadi dɛm afi asetra mu mmeae a wɔbɛkɔ so aka mfaso ne nneɛma a saa mmeae yi de ma ho[121]Ɔkyerɛwfo/nhwehwɛmufo a wadi dɛm Jenny Morris kyerɛkyerɛ sɛnea animtiaabu yɛ adwuma de to nnipa a wɔadi dɛm to nkyɛn mu:[122]

Mpɛn pii no, sɛ́ wobɛkɔ baguam saa no gye akokoduru. Yɛn mu baahe na yehu sɛ yentumi ntutu ahoɔden a yɛde bɛyɛ no da biara da, dapɛn biara, afe biara, nkwa nna nyinaa mu pow ne akyide? Ɛnyɛ honam fam anohyeto ahorow nko na ɛma yɛkɔ yɛn afie ne wɔn a yenim wɔn no mu. Ɛyɛ nimdeɛ a ɛne sɛ obiara a ɔbɛkɔ baguam wiase no mu no, wɔde anibere, ahobrɛase, mmɔborohunu, ne nitan bedi so.

Bio nso, animtiaabu a wohyia no betumi apira onipa a wɔrebɔ no animtiaa no adwene ne nkate fam yiyedi. Akwan a wɔfa so nya nnipa a wɔadi dɛm adwene ne nkate fam akwahosan so nkɛntɛnso bɔne no mu biako ne nhyɛso a wohyia no a wɔde hyɛ wɔn mu, a ebetumi ama wɔate nka sɛ wɔyɛ mmerɛw, wɔabɔ dam, mfaso nni wɔn so anaasɛ su bɔne afoforo dodow biara a ebetumi aba wɔde bɛbata wɔn tebea horow ho. Nhyɛso a wɔde hyɛ wɔn mu no sɛe onipa a ɛka no no obu a ɔwɔ ma ne ho na ɛhyehyɛ wɔn nneyɛe wɔ akwan horow so a ɛne wɔn a wonni dɛmdi biara a wogye tom no tumidi hyia.[121] Wɔtaa de ableist adwene hyɛ wɔn mu bere a nnipa ne ahyehyɛde ahorow a atwa wɔn ho ahyia no hyɛ mmubuafo sɛ wɔmfa wɔn mmubuafo nsonsonoe no nsie na wɔmfa nyɛ hwee, anaasɛ, "wɔtwam". Sɛnea ɔkyerɛwfo Simi Linton kyerɛ no, adeyɛ a ɛma obi twam no gye nkate mu ɔhaw kɛse denam ankorankoro a wɔadi dɛm a ɛma wɔhwere mpɔtam hɔfo, dadwen ne wɔn ho adwenem naayɛ so.[123] Nsɛm ho amanneɛbɔ di dwuma titiriw wɔ animtiaabu a ɛbata dɛmdi ho a wɔde ba na wɔhyɛ mu den no mu. Mpɛn pii no, nsɛm ho amanneɛbɔfo mfonini ahorow a ɛfa dɛmdi ho no ma mmubuafo a wɔwɔ hɔ no kyerɛ sɛ ɛho hia sɛ wɔyɛ kakraa bi wɔ ɔmanfo nyinaa mu. Saa mfonini ahorow yi da adwene a nnipa pii kura wɔ mmubuafo nsonsonoe ho adi na ɛka wɔn so nkɛntɛnso bere koro mu.

Tropes a wɔde di dwuma

[sesa]

Akwan soronko bi wɔ hɔ a nsɛm ho amanneɛbɔfo taa de di dwuma de gyina hɔ ma mmubuafo a wɔwɔ hɔ. Wɔkasa tia akwan a wɔtaa fa so hyehyɛ dɛmdi yi kɛse sɛ ɛyɛ nea ɛnyɛ nnipa de na entumi mfa nnipa a wɔadi dɛm adwene ho hia. Sɛnea dɛmdi ho ɔbenfo ne kasakoafo Jay T. Dolmage kyerɛ no, ableist media tropes betumi ada ɔmanfo anansesɛm a ɛfa mmubuafo ho adi na akɔ so atra hɔ[124]

Nkannyan nguamansɛm

[sesa]

Inspiration porn kyerɛ nnipa a wɔadi dɛm ho mfonini ahorow a wɔda wɔn adi sɛ wɔyɛ nhyɛso esiane sɛ onipa no adi dɛm ara kwa nti. Wɔkasa tia saa mfonini ahorow yi efisɛ wɔyɛɛ no ​​a adwene no ne sɛ wɔbɛma ahwɛfo a wonni dɛmdi biara a wogye tom no ate nka sɛ wɔn ho ye bere a wɔde toto onipa a wɔayɛ ho mfonini no ho no. Sɛ́ anka wobehu nnipa a wɔadi dɛm no, nhyɛso nguamansɛm dan wɔn nneɛma a wɔde nhyɛso ma atiefo a wɔn a wonni dɛmdi biara a wogye tom no na wɔwom.[125]

Supercrip a ɛyɛ nwonwa

[sesa]

Supercrip trope no kyerɛ nsɛm a esisi bere a nsɛm ho amanneɛbɔfo bɔ obi a wadi dɛm a wayɛ biribi a ɛda nsow nanso ɔde n’adwene si wɔn dɛmdi so ho amanneɛ anaasɛ wɔyɛ ho mfonini. Wɔyɛ wɔn ho mfonini sɛ wɔn ho yɛ hu esiane sɛ wɔyɛ soronko bere a wɔde toto afoforo a wɔwɔ tebea koro anaa nea ɛte saa ara ho no. Wɔde saa trope yi di dwuma kɛse wɔ amanneɛbɔ a ɛfa agumadifo a wɔadi dɛm ho ne autistic savants mfonini ahorow mu[126][127]

Saa gyinabea ahorow yi, dɛmdi ho ɔbenfo Ria Cheyne hyɛ no nsow, "wɔfa no kɛse sɛ ɛyɛ nea ɛkɔ akyi fi awosu mu",[128]ɛtew nnipa so kɔ wɔn tebea no mu sen sɛ wobebu wɔn sɛ nnipa a wɔyɛ pɛ. Bio nso, wɔkasa tia mfonini a ɛyɛ supercrip sɛ ɛde akwanhwɛ a ɛnyɛ nokware ba sɛ ɛsɛ sɛ talente soronko bi, nyansa, anaa nhumu ka dɛmdi ho.[129]

Saa trope yi ho nhwɛso ahorow a ɛwɔ nsɛm ho amanneɛbɔ mu ne Oduruyɛfo Shaun Murphy a ofi The Good Doctor, Marvel’s Daredevil, ne afoforo

Nhomanimfo Sami Schalk kyerɛ sɛ asɛmfua supercrip no wɔ nkyerɛase ketewaa bi bere a wosusuw sɛnea wɔde asɛmfua no di dwuma kɛse no ho no. Nea afi mu aba ne sɛ, Schlak de supercrip asɛm a wɔde di dwuma no ahorow abiɛsa ma[129]:

  1. Supercrip asɛm a wɔka daa a obi a wadi dɛm nya mmara a ɔde wie nnɛɛdɛe a ɛyɛ mmerɛw no. Wɔtaa hu eyi sɛ obi a wadi dɛm a otumi yɛ biribi ɛmfa ho sɛ wadi dɛm
  2. Supercrip asɛm a wɔahyɛ no anuonyam a wɔkamfo obi a wadi dɛm sɛ odii nkonim wɔ biribi a obi a ɔnyɛ dɛmdi mpo rentumi nyɛ mu. Wɔtaa de saa asɛm a wɔka kyerɛ yi di dwuma de ka Paralympic agumadifo a wɔadi dɛm ho asɛm.
  3. Superpowered supercrip asɛm a ɛda adi wɔ functionalized representations a ɛfa nnipa a wɔadi dɛm ho. Nnipa a wɔte saa asɛm a wɔka kyerɛ yi nya tumi akɛse esiane wɔn dɛmdi nti. Nhwɛso ahorow a wɔtaa de di dwuma wɔ saa asɛm a wɔka ho asɛm yi mu ne akwaa a wɔde yɛ nipadua a ɛma obi nya tumi kɛse sen sɛnea wɔhwɛɛ kwan anaasɛ ɛwɔ daakye mfiridwuma a ɛma obi yɛ cyborg.[129]

Ɔbɔnefo a wadi dɛm

[sesa]

Wɔtaa de nnipa a wɔwɔ ayɛsɛm mu a wɔwɔ honam fam anaa adwene mu agyiraehyɛde ahorow a ɛkyerɛ nsonsonoe a ɛda ɔmanfo gyinapɛn ahorow a wosusuw sɛ ɛwɔ hɔ no si hɔ sɛ abɔnefo wɔ nkyerɛwee bi mu. Lindsey Row-Heyveld ka akwan a ɛsɛ sɛ wɔfa so kyerɛkyerɛ asuafo ma wofi ase hwehwɛ saa asɛm yi mu kɔ akyiri.[130]Nsonsonoe a wotumi hu a mmubuafo wɔ ne dodow no ara a wotumi di dwuma no atirimpɔw ne sɛ ɛbɛkanyan ehu wɔ atiefo mu a ebetumi ama adwene a ɛne sɛ mmubuafo yɛ asiane ma ankorankoro anaa ɔmanfo yiyedi ne yiyedi no akɔ so atra hɔ.

Mmofra a Wɔadi M dɛm Drop

[sesa]

"Disability drop" trope no yɛ bere a wɔda no adi sɛ obi a wɔkyerɛ sɛ wadi dɛm no reyɛ atoro, ɔresiesie ne ho, anaasɛ ɔkwan foforo so no, ɔnyɛ wɔn dɛmdi a wɔkyerɛ sɛ ɔyɛ no ho mfonini ankasa. Jay Dolmage de Kevin Spacey suban, Verbal Kint, a ɔwɔ sini Usual Suspects mu no ma sɛ eyi ho nhwɛso, na mfonini ahorow te sɛ eyi betumi ada ɔmanfo a wotumi yɛ adwuma no mu ahotoso a wonni wɔ mmubuafo mu adi.[124] Bio nso, saa a wɔda no adi sɛ obi a ɔnyɛ dɛmdi yi taa yɛ asɛm bi asɛm a wɔka no awiei, na dɛmdi a wɔde di dwuma sɛ ntawntawdi fibea wɔ asɛm no mu, asɛm no mu akwanside, anaa mfiri a wɔde kyerɛ nipasu no ne dɛmdi ho adesua ho abenfo nsusuwii afoforo a ɛfa "Narrative Prosthesis", asɛmfua a David T. Mitchell ne Sharon Snyder na wɔde bae.[131]

Nea Wɔadi no Mmubui

[sesa]

Ade foforo a ɛtaa ba ne bere a wosusuw sɛ obi a wadi dɛm yɛ mmɔbɔmmɔbɔ anaasɛ ontumi nyɛ hwee.[132]

The Hunchback of Notre Dame's Quasimodo, The Elephant Man's John Merrick, A Christmas Carol's Tiny Tim, ne mpo nsɛm ho amanneɛbɔ a ɛka nnipa ho asɛm sɛ "wɔn a wɔayɛ wɔn basabasa" anaa "wɔn a wɔahu amane" yɛ saa nsusuwii hunu yi ho nhwɛso kakraa bi.[133]

Nea Ne Ho Nni Ho Daa Daa

[sesa]

Wɔtaa yɛ nnipa a wɔadi dɛm ho mfonini wɔ sini ahorow mu sɛ wɔyɛ abɔfo anaa mmofra. Saa sini ahorow yi bi ne Rain Man (1988), Forrest Gump (1994) ne I Am Sam (2001), a ne nyinaa yɛ nhwɛsoɔ a ɛkyɛn so.[134][135]

Onipa a ne ho nni asɛm na ɔdɔ no a wadi dɛm no taa kyerɛ wɔn atipɛnfo a wɔanyinyin "a wɔte hɔ" no sintɔ ahorow, na ɛboa wɔn ma wonya nkwagye.[134][136]

Te sɛ afoforo nyinaa no, saa adwene a ɛnteɛ yi ma nsusuwii a ɛma obi boa a ɛnyɛ nokware kɛkɛ ma enti ɛsɛe ade no kɔ so tra hɔ.[137]

Bere a dɛmdi ho nsɛm pii wɔ hɔ no, dɛmdi ho afɛfɛde bɔ mmɔden sɛ ebeyi afi hɔ denam mmubuafo nipadua a wɔyɛ ho mfonini pɛpɛɛpɛ wɔ adwinni ne nsɛm ho amanneɛbɔ mu no so[138]

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