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Asetra mu gyinapɛn

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Asetra mu gyinapɛn ahorow yɛ gyinapɛn ahorow a akuw ahorow kyɛ wɔ nneyɛe a wogye tom ho.[1][2] Asetra mu gyinapɛn ahorow betumi ayɛ ntease a ɛnyɛ ɔkwan biara so a ɛkyerɛ ɔman bi mufo nneyɛe kwan, na wɔasan nso ayɛ no mmara ne mmara.[3] Asetena mu gyinapɛn nkɛntɛnsoɔ anaa asetena mu gyinapɛn, wɔbu no sɛ ɛyɛ tumi a ɛde nnipa suban mu nsakraeɛ ba na wɔahyehyɛ no yie na wɔde ahyɛ mu denam nsusuiɛ titire a ɛkyerɛkyerɛ nnipa nneyɛeɛ mu.[4]Asoɛe ahorow no yɛ gyinapɛn ahorow pii. Norms yɛ asetra mu gyidi ahorow a wɔkyɛ wɔ nneyɛe ho; enti, ɛsono "adwene", "adwene", ne "gyinabea ahorow", a wobetumi de asie kokoam, na ɛnyɛ nea ɛfa nneyɛe ho ankasa.[2] Gyinapɛn gyina nsɛm a ɛfa ho, asetra mu kuw, ne abakɔsɛm mu tebea horow so.[5]

Nhomanimfo kyerɛ nsonsonoe a ɛda mmara kwan so gyinapɛn ahorow (a esiw nneyɛe ano), nhyehyɛe mu gyinapɛn ahorow (a ɛhyehyɛ anigyede ahorow), ne mmara kwan so gyinapɛn ahorow (a ɛkyerɛ nea ɛsɛ sɛ agoruyɛfo yɛ) ntam.[6][7][4] Wobetumi de ntease a ɛkyerɛ sɛnea ɛfata ne ntease a ɛfa nea efi mu ba ho akyerɛ nkɛntɛnso a gyinapɛn ahorow nya; kan no kyerɛ sɛ agoruyɛfo di gyinapɛn ahorow akyi efisɛ ɛfata asetra mu, na nea etwa to no kyerɛ sɛ agoruyɛfo di gyinapɛn ahorow akyi esiane ɛka ne mfaso ho akontaabu nti[8]

Wɔakyerɛ akwan abiɛsa wɔ gyinapɛn bi asetra mu: (1) Nhyɛso a ɛba – gyinapɛn adwumayɛfo hwehwɛ sɛ wɔbɛma afoforo agye nneyɛe bi a wɔpɛ na ɛfata; (2) Norm cascade – bere a norm bi nya gye a ɛtrɛw; ne (3) Norm internalization – bere a norm bi nya "taken-for-granted" su.[7]Gyinapɛn ahorow no mu yɛ den wɔ akwan horow so: wɔtaa bu gyinapɛn ahorow bi so bere a gyinapɛn afoforo de wɔn mu kɔ akyiri araa ma gyinapɛn ahorow a wobu so no ntaa nyɛ.[2][4]Wobetumi ahu adanse a ɛkyerɛ sɛ gyinapɛn ahorow wɔ hɔ wɔ nneyɛe nhyehyɛe ahorow a ɛwɔ akuw mu, ne gyinapɛn ahorow a wɔka ho asɛm wɔ kuw kasa mu no mu.[2]

Nkyerɛaseɛ

[sesa]

Nkyerɛase ahorow wɔ hɔ a wɔde ma wɔ asetra mu gyinapɛn ahorow ho, nanso nhomanimfo adwene hyia sɛ gyinapɛn ahorow te saa[9]

  1. ayɔnkofa na wɔkyɛ wɔ kuw bi mufo mu, .
  2. a ɛfa nneyɛe ne nsusuwii a ɛfa gyinaesi ho, .
  3. ahyɛde anaa nea wɔhyɛ
  4. ɔkwan a nnipa kuw bi a wɔwɔ ɔman bi mu fa so tra ase a wogye tom wɔ asetra mu.

Wɔ 1965 mu no, Jack P. Gibbs kyerɛɛ gyinapɛn ahorow abiɛsa titiriw a wobetumi de gyinapɛn ahorow ho adwene nyinaa ahyɛ ase:

  1. "abrabɔ ho nhwehwɛmu a wɔbom yɛ wɔ nea ɛsɛ sɛ ɛyɛ ho".
  2. "akwanhwɛ a wɔbom hwɛ sɛnea suban bɛyɛ".
  3. "nneɛma titiriw a wɔyɛ wɔ nneyɛe ho" (a mmɔden a wɔbɔ sɛ wɔbɛpene so anaasɛ wɔbɛkanyan nneyɛe bi ka ho)[10]

Sɛnea Ronald Jepperson, Peter Katzenstein ne Alexander Wendt kyerɛ no, "ahyɛde yɛ akwanhwɛ a wɔbom hwɛ fa nneyɛe pa ho ma nipasu bi gyinapɛn ahorow a ɛyɛ papa[11].[12]Sandholtz, Martha Finnemore ne Kathryn Sikkink kyerɛkyerɛ gyinapɛn mu mmom sɛ "gyinabea a ɛfa suban a ɛfata ma agoruyɛfo a wɔwɔ nipasu bi a wɔde ama wɔn."[12][7] Wɔ saa nkyerɛase yi mu no, gyinapɛn ahorow wɔ "ɛsɛ" su ma wɔn.

Michael Hechter ne Karl-Dieter Opp kyerɛkyerɛ gyinapɛn mu sɛ "amammerɛ mu nneɛma a ɛkyerɛ na ɛbara nneyɛe wɔ tebea pɔtee bi mu."[13] Asetra ho animdefo Christine Horne ne Stefanie Mollborn kyerɛkyerɛ gyinapɛn mu sɛ "kuw-gyinabea nhwehwɛmu a wɔyɛ wɔ suban ho." gyinapɛn ahorow yɛ akwanhwɛ a atrɛw a ɛfa asetra mu pene anaa nneyɛe a wɔmpene so ho.[14]Nhomanimfo gye akyinnye sɛ ebia asetra mu gyinapɛn ahorow yɛ ankorankoro nsusuwii anaasɛ nnipa dodow a wɔbom yɛ.[9]

Sikasɛm ho ɔbenfo ne agodie ho ɔbenfo Peyton Young kyerɛkyerɛ gyinapɛn ahorow mu sɛ "suban ahorow a ɛhyɛ ne ho so wɔ kuw bi mu."[5]Osi so dua sɛ gyinapɛn ahorow no nam akwanhwɛ a wɔkyɛ so na ɛkanyan no: "Obiara yɛ nea ɛne ne ho hyia, wɔhwɛ kwan sɛ obiara bɛyɛ nea ɛne ne ho hyia, na obiara pɛ sɛ ɔyɛ saa." conform bere a wɔhwɛ kwan sɛ obiara bɛyɛ conform."[5] Ɔkyerɛ gyinapɛn ahorow sɛ mfiri a "ɛyɛ nnipa akwanhwɛ ahorow bom wɔ nkitahodi ahorow a ɛwɔ kari pɛ pii mu."[15]

Wɔakyerɛ adwene te sɛ "amane ahorow", "amammerɛ", "abrabɔ pa", "abrabɔ pa", "mmara", ne "mmara" sɛ ɛne gyinapɛn ahorow yɛ pɛ[10]Wobetumi abu asoɛe ahorow sɛ ɛyɛ nneɛma a wɔaboaboa ano anaasɛ akuwakuw a ɛwɔ gyinapɛn ahorow pii.[7]Mmara ne gyinapɛn ahorow nyɛ nneɛma a ɛda nsow: abien no nyinaa yɛ abrabɔ gyinapɛn ahorow a ebetumi anya nea ɛsono nea ɛyɛ pɔtee ne nea ɛyɛ nhyehyɛe.[12][14]Mmara yɛ gyinapɛn ahorow a wɔde di dwuma wɔ ɔkwan a ɛfata so kɛse[12][16][17] Ebia mmara, mmara ne gyinapɛn ahorow bɛbɔ abira; sɛ nhwɛso no, mmara bi betumi abara biribi nanso gyinapɛn ahorow da so ara ma ho kwan.[14]Norms nyɛ nea ɛne ankorankoro suban ahorow a wɔaka abom ayɛ pɛ.[18] Adwene, suban ne gyinapɛn ahorow nyɛ gyinapɛn ahorow, efisɛ saa nsusuwii ahorow yi mfa nneyɛe ho ankasa na ebia wɔde sie kokoam.[2][14]"Nneyɛe a abu so" ne suban a ɛkɔ so daa no nyɛ nea wɔahyɛ da ayɛ[9][9] Awosu anaa abɔde mu nneyɛe, ankorankoro anigyede, ne ankorankoro suban nyɛ nea wɔahyɛ da ayɛ.[9]

Ɛpue ne nea ɛde kɔ

[sesa]

Ebia akuw ahorow begye gyinapɛn ahorow atom wɔ akwan horow so.

Ebia gyinapɛn ahorow bi a egyina pintinn na ɛhyɛ ne ho mu den bɛba ara kwa a nnipa nsusuw ho wɔ nhumu mu.[19][13] Peyton Young kɔ akyiri araa ma ɔka sɛ "nhyɛso ahorow taa dannan a enni akwankyerɛ a efi soro ba fam... ɛnam ankorankoro nkitahodi so sen sɛ ɛnam nhyehyɛe so sɛnea ɛbɛyɛ a wobedi nneyɛe so.[20][21] Ɛnyɛ mmara a wɔakyerɛw ato hɔ ankasa, gyinapɛn ahorow a ɛnyɛ ɔkwan biara so gyina hɔ ma nneyɛe a wɔtaa gye tom na wɔpene so kɛse a nkurɔfo di akyi wɔ da biara da asetra mu.[22] Saa gyinapɛn ahorow a ɛnyɛ nea wɔahyɛ da ayɛ yi, sɛ wobu so a, ebia ɛrento nsa mfrɛ mmara kwan so asotwe anaa asotwe a ɛfata, na mmom ɛhyɛ animka, kɔkɔbɔ, anaa nneɛma afoforo ho nkuran; sɛ nhwɛso no, wɔtaa susuw sɛ abusuafo a wɔne wɔn da sɛ ɛyɛ bɔne wɔ ɔmanfo mu, nanso aman pii nni mmara kwan so.

Wobetumi nso abɔ gyinapɛn ahorow na wɔama anya nkɔso denam nnipa nhyehyɛe a wɔde adwenem naayɛ a gyinapɛn adwumayɛfo yɛ so[23][24] Gyinapɛn ahorow betumi asɔre wɔ ɔkwan a ɛfata so, baabi a akuw ahorow kyerɛkyerɛ nneyɛe mu akwanhwɛ ahorow mu pefee na wɔde di dwuma. Mmara mu gyinapɛn ahorow taa fi nhyehyɛe mu.[13][25] Saa gyinapɛn ahorow yi dodow bi a yedi akyi ‘wɔ abɔde mu’ te sɛ kar a yɛbɛka wɔ ɔkwan no nifa so wɔ U.S. ne benkum so wɔ UK, anaasɛ yɛrentu mmirika sɛnea ɛbɛyɛ a yɛbɛkwati tekiti.

Nhomanimfo binom akyerɛ sɛ gyinapɛn ahorow no ntumi nnyina fi awosu mu, na wɔnam saayɛ so ama nneɛma a ebetumi aba sɛ gyinapɛn ahorow bɛsakra.[12][26][27][28] Sɛnea Wayne Sandholtz kyerɛ no, ɛyɛ mmerɛw sɛ agoruyɛfo bɛtwetwe afoforo ma wɔasesa gyinapɛn ahorow a ɛwɔ hɔ dedaw no sɛ wɔwɔ tumi, wobetumi atwe adwene asi fapem meta-nhyɛso ahorow a ɛwɔ hɔ dedaw so, na wobetumi atwe adwene asi nneɛma a atwam so.[29] Wɔakyerɛ sɛ asetra mu bɛn a ɛbɛn agoruyɛfo no yɛ ade titiriw a ɛma asetra mu gyinapɛn ahorow kɔ so tra hɔ[30]

Nhyɛso ahorow a wɔde kɔ akuw ahorow ntam

[sesa]

Ankorankoro nso betumi de gyinapɛn ahorow a efi ahyehyɛde bi a atwam mu aba wɔn kuw foforo no mu, a bere kɔ so no wobetumi agye atom[31][32] Esiane sɛ nkurɔfo nkyerɛ sɛnea wɔbɛyɛ wɔn ade pefee nti, wɔtaa de wɔn ho to wɔn abakɔsɛm so de kyerɛ ɔkwan a eye sen biara a wɔbɛfa so akɔ wɔn anim; nea edii yiye kan no betumi asom wɔn yiye bio. Wɔ kuw bi mu no, ankorankoro nyinaa betumi de abakɔsɛm anaa nkyerɛwee ahorow a ɛfa nneyɛe a ɛfata ho aba; osuahu a wɔtaa nya wɔ bere mu no bɛma kuw no akyerɛkyerɛ ne nyinaa mu wɔ adeyɛ a ɛfata ho, mpɛn pii no ɛne asɔremma nhyehyɛe ahorow pii a wɔde bɛka abom[32]Wɔ importation paradigm ase no, norm formation kɔ so wɔ anifere kwan so na ɛyɛ ntɛmntɛm[32] bere a wɔ formal anaa informal development of norms mu no betumi agye bere tenten.

Akuw ahorow de gyinapɛn ahorow hyɛ wɔn mu denam gye a wogye tom sɛ gyinapɛn ahorow a ntease wom na ɛfata ma nneyɛe wɔ kuw no mu no so. Sɛ wɔde si hɔ pintinn a, gyinapɛn bi bɛyɛ kuw no dwumadi nhyehyɛe no fã ma enti ɛyɛ den sɛ wɔbɛsesa. Bere a ebetumi aba sɛ wɔn a wɔaba kuw bi mu foforo no bɛsesa ne gyinapɛn ahorow no, ɛda adi kɛse sɛ onipa foforo no begye kuw no gyinapɛn ahorow, gyinapɛn ahorow, ne wɔn adwene atom, sen sɛ ɔbɛfa ɔkwan foforo so.[20]

Asetra mu gyinapɛn ahorow a wɔtwe wɔn ho fi ho

[sesa]

Wɔkyerɛkyerɛ deviance mu sɛ "wɔnhyia gyinapɛn ahorow bi a nnipa dodow bi a ɛho hia wɔ mpɔtam anaa ɔman bi mu gye tom"[33] Sɛ yɛbɛka no tiawa a, sɛ kuw no mufo anni gyinapɛn bi akyi a, wɔbɛfrɛ wɔn sɛ wɔyɛ deviant. Wɔ asetra ho adesua nhoma ahorow mu no, eyi betumi ama wɔabu wɔn mpɛn pii sɛ nnipa a wɔapam wɔn afi ɔmanfo mu. Nanso, wɔhwɛ kwan sɛ mmofra nneyɛe a ɛtwetwe adwene no yɛ nea wɔhwɛ kwan wɔ ɔkwan bi so. Gye adwene a ɛne sɛ saa kwan a wɔtwetwe yi da adi sɛ nsɛmmɔnedi adeyɛ no, wɔtwe asetra mu abodwokyɛre a wɔde mae wɔ abofra no nhwɛso mu no fi hɔ ntɛm ara tia ɔsɛmmɔnedifo no. Wobu nsɛmmɔnedi sɛ ɛyɛ akwan a wɔfa so twe wɔn ho fi ho a ɛyɛ hu sen biara no mu biako sɛnea nhomanimfo Clifford R. Shaw kyerɛ no[34]

Nea wobu no sɛ "ɛyɛ daa" no fa beae a amammerɛ a asetra mu nkitahodi no rekɔ so no wɔ. Wɔ adwene ne nneyɛe ho nimdeɛ mu no, ankorankoro bi a ɔtaa bu kuw gyinapɛn ahorow so no wɔ asiane mu sɛ ɔbɛdan “ɔyɛ ɔkwasea a wɔahyehyɛ no.” Te sɛ asetra ho adesua mu nkyerɛase no, kuw no mufo afoforo betumi abu wɔn a wɔatwe wɔn ho afi ahyehyɛde ahorow mu no atɛn esiane sɛ wɔanni gyinapɛn ahorow so nti. Mfiase no, kuw no mufo betumi ama nhyɛso akɔ soro wɔ obi a ɔnyɛ nea ɔpɛ so, na wɔabɔ mmɔden sɛ wɔde onipa no bɛbɔ nkɔmmɔ anaasɛ wɔbɛkyerɛkyerɛ nea enti a ɛsɛ sɛ odi wɔn suban ho akwanhwɛ akyi. Dwuma a obi di sɛ ɔbɛyɛ n’ade anaasɛ ɔrenyɛ no gyina sɛnea wɔn nneyɛe bɛka afoforo so kɛse.[35] Titiriw wɔ asɔremma foforo a ebia wonnim yiye no fam no, akuw betumi de nneɛma a wɔde kanyan obi a wɔpɛ adi dwuma de asan de ankorankoro bi nneyɛe ahyia. Nanso, bere kɔ so no, sɛ emufo kɔ so yɛ asoɔden a, kuw no bɛma wɔagyae wɔn ho mu sɛ ade a ayera; bere a ebia ɛnyɛ nea ɛho hia sɛ kuw no betwa wɔn asɔremma mu no, ebia wobesusuw wɔn ho wɔ ɔkwan a ɛyɛ aniani so nkutoo.[20] Sɛ nhwɛso no, sɛ odwumayɛni bi ka akyi wɔ nhyiam bi ase, na obu adwumayɛbea no mmara a ɛne sɛ wodi bere so no so a, ebia ɔpanyin anaa ne yɔnko dwumayɛni foforo bi bɛtwɛn ma onipa no aba na watwe no akɔ nkyɛn akyiri yi abisa nea esii. Sɛ suban no kɔ so a, awiei koraa no kuw no betumi afi nhyiam ase a ɔnka ho efisɛ onipa no "ka akyi bere nyinaa." Kuw no ka onipa no asoɔden ho asɛm wɔ ɔkwan a ɛkɔ akyiri so na wɔpow no ntɛm ara, na ɛnam so ma ɔmannifo no nkɛntɛnso ne ne nan a obesi wɔ kuw no mu adwene a enhyia daakye mu no so tew.

Kuw a wɔma kwan ma wɔtwe wɔn ho fi ho no gu ahorow wɔ asɔremma mu; ɛnyɛ kuw no mufo nyinaa na wonya ayaresa koro wɔ gyinapɛn ahorow a wobu so ho. Ankorankoro betumi akyekye suban pa "reserve" denam conformity so, a wobetumi abɔ bosea atia akyiri yi. Saa idiosyncrasy credits yi ma nsusuiɛ sika a wɔde bɛte nsakraeɛ a ɛwɔ kuw suban akwanhwɛ mu ase.[36] Sɛ nhwɛso no, ebia ɛbɛyɛ mmerɛw sɛ ɔkyerɛkyerɛfo de osuani a ɔyɛ tẽẽ-A bɛkyɛ no sɛ ɔbɔɔ bra bɔne —a wakora "abɔde pa" a atwam —asen osuani a ɔhaw adwene mpɛn pii. Bere a adwumayɛ a atwam no betumi aboa ma wɔakyekye idiosyncrasy credits no, kuw no mufo binom wɔ kari pɛ a ɛkorɔn a wɔde fi ase.[36] Ankorankoro betumi de idiosyncrasy credits afi kuw foforo hɔ aba; sɛ nhwɛso no, mmofraberem sini mu nnwontofo a wɔkyerɛw wɔn din wɔ kɔlege no betumi anya ahofadi kɛse wɔ sukuu gyinapɛn ahorow a wobegye atom mu sen sukuufo afoforo a wɔreba afe a edi kan no. Awiei koraa no, akannifo anaa ankorankoro a wɔwɔ dibea afoforo a ɛkorɔn betumi afi ase de agyede pii na ɛte sɛ nea "wɔboro mmara so" wɔ mmere bi mu.[36][20] Nanso, wɔn idiosyncrasy credits mpo nyɛ nea enni ase; bere a wokura gyinapɛn a ɛyɛ mmerɛw sen ɔmannifo a wɔkyekyem pɛpɛɛpɛ mu no, ebia akannifo da so ara hyia kuw pow sɛ wɔn asoɔden no yɛ nea ɛtra so dodo a.

Kwan a wɔtwe wɔn ho fi ho nso ma obi nya nkate ahorow pii bere a ɔne nea wɔtaa yɛ no nhyia no. Saa nkate horow a wɔkyerɛ kɛse sɛ efi twetwe adwene no mu biako ne afobu. Afobu ne asɛyɛde ho abrabɔ pa a ɛno nso bɛyɛ ade titiriw a ɛfa abrabɔ pa ho asɛyɛde ho no wɔ abusuabɔ. Afobu di akyi no, adeyɛ bi a wogye ho kyim wɔ ne yɛ akyi.[37]Wobetumi aka ho asɛm sɛ biribi a enye mma obi ankasa ne nkate tebea a enye nso. Sɛ wɔde di dwuma wɔ nsɛm abien no nyinaa mu a, ɛyɛ nkate a ɛnyɛ dɛ ne ɔkwan a wɔfa so twe wɔn ho aso nso. Sɛ yɛde kasakoa a ɛne "nsa a ɛho agu fĩ" di dwuma a[38] ɛyɛ obi ho nkekae anaa nkekae ma enti ɛsɛ sɛ ɔno ankasa tew efĩ no ho. Ɛyɛ ɔkwan a wɔfa so tua obi ka a ɔde ne ho to ne ho so na ɔde ne ho hyɛ abufuw ne asotwe a ebetumi aba afi afoforo hɔ no ase nso. Afobu yɛ asɛm bi a ɛwɔ adeyɛ ne nkate nyinaa mu a ɛyɛ adwuma sɛ nea ɛkanyan nneyɛe foforo a "ɛyɛ nidi".

Nhwehwɛmu bi a wɔyɛe wɔ afe 2023 mu daa no adi sɛ aman a wɔnyɛ mfiridwuma mu de no gu ahorow wɔ asotwe a wɔde ma wɔ gyinapɛn ahorow a wobu so no mu. Ná ɛsono asotwe a egyina gyinapɛn ahorow a wobu so ne ɔmanfo asetra ne sikasɛm nhyehyɛe so. Nhwehwɛmu no "huu adanse a ɛkyerɛ sɛ na asotwe a wɔde ma wɔ din pa ho ne pɛyɛ ne aduan a wɔkora so a enni hɔ wɔ abusuabɔ; na honam fam asotwe ne aduan a wɔkora so wɔ abusuabɔ; na honam fam asotwe ne abɔmmɔ a wɔde wɔn ho to so kɛse no wɔ abusuabɔ a ɛkɔ fam; na asotwe a wɔde kum obi ne asetra mu nkyekyem ahorow wɔ abusuabɔ a ɛkɔ fam ."[39]

Suban

[sesa]

Bere a adwene wɔ ɔkwan a ɛkɔ akyiri so no, ɛnyɛ nea ɛkyerɛ nneyɛe ho nkyerɛkyerɛmu ankasa no, Martha Finnemore ka sɛ "ahyɛde ahorow sɛnea wɔkyerɛ ase no fa nneyɛe ho. Obi betumi aka sɛ ɛyɛ adwene a wɔbom kura wɔ nneyɛe ho."[2]

Wobetumi de gyinapɛn ahorow a ɛne ɔmanfo anaa amammerɛ a ɛtrɛw no nneyɛe bɔ abira no akɔma na wɔakura mu wɔ ɔmanfo akuw nketewa mu. Sɛ nhwɛso no, Crandall (1988) kae sɛ akuw bi (e.g., cheerleading squads, asaw akuw, agumadi akuw, mmea akuw) wɔ bulimia dodow, yare a ɔmanfo gye tom a ɛde nkwa to asiane mu, a ɛboro ɔmanfo nyinaa so. Asetra mu gyinapɛn ahorow wɔ ɔkwan a wɔfa so kura nhyehyɛe mu na wɔhyehyɛ akuw.[40]

Wɔ asetena mu adwene ho nimdeɛ mu no, wosi dwuma a gyinapɛn ahorow di so dua —a ebetumi akyerɛ nneyɛe kwan wɔ tebea anaa tebea pɔtee bi mu sɛ "adwene mu sɛnkyerɛnne ahorow a ɛkyerɛ suban a ɛfata".[41] Wɔada no adi sɛ nkrasɛm a ɛfa mmara ho betumi ahyɛ nneyɛe a ɛboa asetra ho nkuran, a nea ɛka ho ne nsa a wɔnom so tew,[42] abatowfo dodow a ɛkɔ soro,[43] ne ahoɔden a wɔde di dwuma a wɔbɛtew so[44]Sɛnea adwene mu nkyerɛase a ɛfa asetra mu gyinapɛn ahorow no suban fã ho kyerɛ no, gyinapɛn ahorow wɔ afã abien: dodow a wɔda suban bi adi, ne dodow a kuw no pene saa suban no so[45]

Asetra mu tumidi

[sesa]

Ɛwom sɛ wommu no sɛ ɛyɛ mmara a wɔahyɛ da ahyɛ da wɔ ɔmanfo mu de, nanso gyinapɛn ahorow da so ara yɛ adwuma de hyɛ asetra mu tumidi kɛse ho nkuran.[46] Ɛyɛ nsɛm a ɛkyerɛ abrabɔ. Amammerɛ mu adeyɛ a ɛyɛ nea wɔtaa yɛ no ne nea ɔkyerɛw nneyɛe a wogye tom wɔ nsɛm pɔtee bi mu. Nsonsonoe a egyina amammerɛ, abusuakuw, nyamesom, ne asasesin so no, ɛyɛ nsɛmfua a ebinom nim sɛ ɛyɛ nea wogye tom te sɛ nea wɔrempira afoforo no fapem, sika kɔkɔɔ mmara, ne bɔhyɛ ahorow a wɔahyɛ ho bɔ a wobedi so. [47]Sɛ ɛnyɛ wɔn a, anka wiase bi bɛba a obiara adwene hyia, adwene a wɔbom yɛ, anaa anohyeto biara nni mu. Ɛwom mpo sɛ ɛnyɛ nea wɔahyɛ da ayɛ mmara ne ɔman bi mmara sɛ ɛbɛhyɛ asetra mu gyinapɛn ahorow so de, nanso ɔmanfo ne mmara no wɔ abusuabɔ fi awosu mu na biako kyerɛ ɔfoforo. Eyi nti na wɔaka sɛ kasa a wɔde di dwuma wɔ mmara ahorow bi mu no di nea ɛsɛ sɛ wogye tom anaasɛ ɛnsɛ sɛ wogye tom no so na ɛkyerɛ. Sɛ nhwɛso no, wɔka sɛ abusua mu nna a wɔde bu no sɛ nsɛmmɔnedi no bɔ wɔn a wɔyɛ mmerɛw no ho ban, nanso mpanyimfo a wɔpene so mpo ntumi ne wɔn abusuafo nnya nna mu abusuabɔ. Kasa a atwa saa mmara yi ho ahyia no da nkrasɛm a ɛne sɛ wɔkyerɛ sɛ nneyɛe a ɛtete saa no yɛ ɔbrasɛe na ɛsɛ sɛ wɔkasa tia, ɛwom mpo sɛ obiara nni hɔ a wɔayɛ no bɔne ankasa wɔ saa abusuabɔ ahorow a wɔpene so yi mu de.[48]

Wobetumi de asetena mu gyinapɛn ahorow adi dwuma wɔ ɔkwan a ɛfata so (s.e., denam asotwe so) anaasɛ wɔ ɔkwan a ɛnyɛ ɔkwan pa so (s.e., denam nipadua kasa ne nkitahodi ho nsɛnkyerɛnne a ɛnyɛ kasa so).[49] Esiane sɛ ankorankoro taa nya honam fam anaa adwene mu nneɛma fi kuw no mufo mu nti, wɔkyerɛ sɛ akuw di nneɛma a ɛkanyan wɔn a wɔpɛ sɛ wɔpaw wɔn no so; akuw betumi asie anaasɛ wɔde nneɛma pii ama de abua asɔremma a wɔbata kuw gyinapɛn ahorow so, na wɔadi asɔremma nneyɛe so yiye denam akatua ne operant conditioning so.[20] Asetra mu adwene ho nhwehwɛmu ada no adi sɛ dodow a ankorankoro bu nneɛma a kuw di so sɛ ɛsom bo anaasɛ dodow a ankorankoro hu kuw mufo sɛ ade titiriw wɔ ne nkyerɛase a ɔde ma wɔ ne ho no mu no, dodow no ara na ɛda adi sɛ ɔne no bɛyɛ pɛ.[20] Asetra mu gyinapɛn ahorow nso ma ankorankoro bi tumi susuw nneyɛe a kuw no bu no sɛ ɛho hia ma ne ba anaa ne nkwa ho, efisɛ egyina hɔ ma gyidi ho mmara a wɔahyehyɛ; mpɛn pii no akuw ntwe asɔremma aso anaasɛ wɔnyɛ gyinapɛn ahorow wɔ nneyɛe a ɛho nhia pii ho.[20][31] Gyinapɛn ahorow a ɛwɔ amammerɛ biara mu no ma wɔyɛ nea ɛne ne ho hyia a ɛma nkurɔfo nya fekubɔ ne amammerɛ a wɔte mu no.[50]

Sɛ́ nnipa a wɔte asetra mu no, ankorankoro sua bere ne baabi a ɛfata sɛ wɔka nsɛm bi, wɔde nsɛmfua bi di dwuma, susuw nsɛmti bi ho anaasɛ wɔhyɛ ntade bi, ne bere a ɛnyɛ saa. Enti, nimdeɛ a ɛfa amammerɛ mu gyinapɛn ahorow ho ho hia ma nsusuwii ahorow,[51] a ɛyɛ ankorankoro bi nhyehyɛe a ɔde ma wɔ wɔn nneyɛe a ɛnyɛ kasa mu. Obi nso nam osuahu so hu nnipa ahorow a obetumi ne wɔn atumi ne wɔn asusuw nsɛmti bi ho anaasɛ ɔhyɛ ntade ahorow bi atwa wɔn ho ahyia. Mpɛn pii no, wɔnam osuahu so na wonya saa nimdeɛ yi (i.e. wɔnam asetra mu nkitahodi so sua asetra mu gyinapɛn ahorow).[51] Atade a wɔhyɛ kɔ adwuma ho nsɛmbisa mu sɛnea ɛbɛyɛ a wobenya adwene kɛse a edi kan no gyina hɔ ma asetra mu gyinapɛn bi a wɔtaa yɛ wɔ adwumayɛfo a wɔyɛ adwumaden no mu.

Wɔ n'adwuma "Order without Law: How Neighbors Settle Disputes" mu no, Robert Ellickson sua nkitahodi ahorow a ɛda mpɔtam hɔfo ne mpɔtam hɔfo ntam de kyerɛ sɛnea ɔmanfo gyinapɛn ahorow ma nhyehyɛe ba nnipa kuw ketewaa bi mu. Ɔkyerɛ sɛ, wɔ mpɔtam ketewa anaa mpɔtam ketewa bi mu no, wobetumi asiesie mmara ne akasakasa pii a wonni sodikuw titiriw biara denam nkitahodi a ɛwɔ saa mpɔtam yi mu ara kwa so[52]

Asetra mu nsɛm ho adesua

[sesa]

Wɔ asetra ho adesua mu no, wohu gyinapɛn ahorow sɛ mmara a ɛkyekyere ankorankoro nneyɛe wɔ asotwe pɔtee bi ho wɔ akwan abien no mu biako so: asotwe anaa akatua.[53] Ɛnam suban ho mmara so no, asetena mu gyinapɛn ahorow ma nhyehyɛe soronko a ɛma kwan ma wɔyɛ nsonsonoe a ɛda asetra mu nhyehyɛe ahorow ntam.[53] Eyi de ɔhye bi ba a ɛma kwan ma nsonsonoe da wɔn a wɔka asetra mu tebea pɔtee bi mu ne wɔn a wɔnyɛ saa no ntam.[53]

Wɔ Talcott Parsons a ɔwɔ functionalist sukuu no fam no, gyinapɛn ahorow na ɛkyerɛ sɛnea nnipa di nkitaho wɔ asetra mu nhyiam ahorow nyinaa mu. Ɔkwan foforo so no, Karl Marx gye dii sɛ wɔde gyinapɛn ahorow di dwuma de hyɛ dwumadi ahorow a wɔbɔ wɔ ɔmanfo mu a ɛma nnipa a wɔwɔ asetra mu kuw nhyehyɛe ahorow mu tumi yɛ adwuma yiye no ho nkuran. Marx ka sɛ tumi a ɛyɛ nnam yi na ɛma asetra mu nhyehyɛe ba. James Coleman (asetra ho nimdefo) de micro ne macro tebea nyinaa dii dwuma maa ne nsusuwii no.[53] Wɔ Coleman fam no, gyinapɛn ahorow fi ase sɛ nneyɛe a ɛfa botae ho a agoruyɛfo yɛ wɔ micro level.[53]Sɛ mfaso a ɛwɔ so no nsen ɛka a wɔbɔ wɔ adeyɛ no ho mma agoruyɛfo no a, ɛnde asetra mu gyinapɛn bi bɛba.[53]] Afei wɔde tumi a ɛwɔ sɛ ɛde n’asotwe ahorow no hyɛ wɔn a wɔremmoa mma "asetra mu nhyehyɛe a eye sen biara" no so na ɛkyerɛ sɛnea gyinapɛn no bɛyɛ adwuma yiye.[53]

Heinrich Popitz gye di sɛ asetra mu gyinapɛn ahorow a wɔde besi hɔ, a ɛma daakye nneyɛe a ɛfa nsakrae ho no yɛ nea wotumi hu ma ego no di ɔhaw a ɛne sɛ ɛbɛba daakye ho dwuma (Niklas Luhmann). Wɔ saa kwan yi so no, ego betumi de ne ho ato saa nneyɛe no so te sɛ nea anka wɔayɛ dedaw na enhia sɛ ɛtwɛn ma wokum no ankasa; enti asetra mu nkitahodi kɔ so ntɛmntɛm. Nneɛma a ɛho hia wɔ suban gyinapɛn mu ne asotwe[54]ne asetra mu dwumadi ahorow.

Operant a wɔde yɛ adwuma

[sesa]

Wɔaka sɛnea ɛbɛyɛ yiye sɛ saa nneyɛe yi bɛsan aba bio ho asɛm wɔ B. F. Skinner nsusuwii ahorow mu, a ɔka sɛ operant conditioning di dwuma wɔ asetra mu gyinapɛn ahorow a ɛkɔ so no mu. Operant conditioning yɛ adeyɛ a wɔfa so sesa nneyɛe sɛ nea efi mu ba no dwumadi. Wobetumi ama nea ebetumi aba sɛ suban bi bɛba no akɔ soro anaasɛ ɛso atew a egyina nea ebefi suban a wɔaka ho asɛm no mu aba so.

Wɔ asetra mu twetiatwa ho no, ankorankoro bi a wakɔ atia gyinapɛn bi no bedi nkitaho wɔ nsɛmmɔnedi a ɛbata akwanside ho no ho, eyi betumi ayɛ animtiaabu wɔ ɔkwan a ɛfata so anaasɛ wɔanhyɛ da, asetra mu tew a wɔtew wɔn ho anaasɛ kasatia, anaa asotwe a ɛyɛ nokware kɛse te sɛ asotwe anaa afiasenna. Sɛ obi tew suban a ɛtwetwe adwene no so bere a wanya nea enye a efi mu ba akyi a, ɛnde na wɔasua denam asotwe so. Sɛ wɔde wɔn ho ahyɛ suban bi a ɛne asetra mu gyinapɛn bi hyia mu bere a wɔatew nkannyan a ɛyɛ akyide so akyi a, ɛnde na wɔnam ahoɔden a enye so asua. Nhyɛso ma suban yɛ kɛse, bere a asotwe ma suban so tew.

Sɛ eyi ho nhwɛso no, susuw abofra bi a wayɛ mfonini wɔ ne fie afasu ho ho, sɛ wanyɛ eyi da a, ebia ɔbɛhwehwɛ ntɛm ara sɛ ne maame anaa ne papa bɛyɛ n’ade. Ɔkwan a ɛna anaa agya no bɛyɛ n’ade no bɛka sɛ ebia ɛda adi sɛ suban no bɛsan aba bio daakye anaa. Sɛ n’awofo wɔ adwempa na ɔpene suban no so a ɛda adi sɛ ɛbɛsan aba bio (reinforcement) nanso, sɛ ɔwofo no de nea efi mu ba a ɛyɛ abofono ma (honam fam asotwe, bere a wɔde gyae adwuma, abufuw ne nea ɛkeka ho...) a, ɛnde ɛnyɛ den koraa sɛ abofra no nsan nyɛ suban no bio daakye (asotwe).

Skinner nso ka sɛ wɔde nnipa ahyɛ wɔn tebea fi wɔn mmofraase pɛɛ wɔ sɛnea wɔbɛyɛ wɔn ade ne sɛnea wɔne wɔn a wɔatwa yɛn ho ahyia no bɛyɛ ade bere a wosusuw ɔmanfo ne beae a obi wɔ no akyi nkɛntɛnso ahorow ho no.[55]][56]Wɔasisi no sɛnea ɛbɛyɛ a ɛbɛfrafra tebea ne suban a atwa yɛn ho ahyia no mu, deviance yɛ adeyɛ a ɛyɛ animtiaabu.

Fa adwene si nsusuwii a ɛfa abrabɔ a wɔahyɛ da ayɛ ho

[sesa]

Cialdini, Reno, ne Kallgren yɛɛ adwene a wɔde si biribi so ho nkyerɛkyerɛ a ɛfa abrabɔ a ɛfata ho de kyerɛkyerɛɛ sɛnea ankorankoro de suban ho akwanhwɛ ahorow pii di nkitaho prɛko pɛ. Bere a wɔretrɛw gyidi ahorow a wɔadi kan agye a ɛbɔ abira a ɛfa sɛ ebia amammerɛ, tebea anaa ankorankoro gyinapɛn ahorow kanyan adeyɛ ho no, nhwehwɛmufo no kyerɛe sɛ nea wɔde wɔn adwene besi ankorankoro bi adwene so no na ɛbɛkyerɛ suban mu akwanhwɛ a wodi akyi.[57]

Nneɛma ahorow

[sesa]

Wɔn adwene nhyia pefee wɔ sɛnea ɛsɛ sɛ wɔde asɛmfua norm di dwuma ho[58]

Martha Finnemore ne Kathryn Sikkink kyerɛ nsonsonoe a ɛda gyinapɛn ahorow abiɛsa ntam:[7]

  1. Mmara kwan so gyinapɛn: "wɔhyehyɛ na ɛhyɛ suban ano".
  2. Constitutive norms: "wɔbɔ ayɛyɛde foforo, anigyede, anaa adeyɛ akuw".
  3. Evaluative ne prescriptive norms: wɔwɔ "ɛsɛ" su bi ma wɔn

Finnemore, Sikkink, Jeffrey W. Legro ne afoforo aka sɛ wobetumi de nneɛma te sɛ:

  • Nneɛma pɔtee a ɛwɔ gyinapɛn no mu: gyinapɛn ahorow a emu da hɔ na ɛyɛ pɔtee no taa yɛ nea etu mpɔn[4][7]
  • Nkwa tenten a gyinapɛn no te: gyinapɛn ahorow a abakɔsɛm wom no taa yɛ nea etu mpɔn[7]
  • Amansan nyinaa a ɛwɔ gyinapɛn no mu: gyinapɛn ahorow a ɛka nsɛm a wɔka no nyinaa (sen sɛ ɛbɛyɛ nsɛm a wɔka wɔ mpɔtam hɔ ne nea ɛfa nneɛma pɔtee bi ho) no taa yɛ nea etu mpɔn[7]
  • Nsεmfua a εda adi: gyinapɛn a wogye tom kɛse wɔ agoruyɛfo a wɔwɔ tumi mu no, ɛda adi kɛse sɛ etu mpɔn[4]

Christina Horne kyerɛ sɛ sɛnea wɔboa agoruyɛfo a wɔpene nneyɛe a ɛtwetwe adwene so no so na ɛkyerɛ sɛnea gyinapɛn bi mu yɛ den no; ɔka gyinapɛn ahorow a ɛhwɛ sɛnea wɔhyɛ gyinapɛn ahorow so ho asɛm sɛ "metannorms."[59] Sɛnea Beth G. Simmons ne Hyeran Jo kyerɛ no, mmoa ahorow a wɔde ma gyinapɛn bi betumi ayɛ nea ɛkyerɛ denneennen sɛ ɛyɛ den.[60] Wɔde ka ho sɛ nhyehyɛe bi a wɔde hyɛ gyinapɛn bi mu no ma ne ahoɔden kɔ soro.[60] Wɔasan nso akyerɛ sɛ gyinapɛn ahorow a ɛwɔ gyinapɛn ahorow a ɛsono nanso ɛhyɛ wɔn ho wɔn ho mu den akuwakuw a ɛtrɛw mu no betumi ayɛ nea ɛyɛ den kɛse[61]

Jeffrey Checkel kyerɛ sɛ nkyerɛkyerɛmu ahorow abien na wɔtaa de ma wɔ sɛnea gyinapɛn ahorow yɛ adwuma yiye ho:[62]

Ntease: agoruyɛfo di gyinapɛn ahorow so esiane nhyɛso, ɛka ne mfaso ho akontaabu, ne honam fam nneɛma a wɔde kanyan wɔn nti

Constructivism: agoruyɛfo di gyinapɛn ahorow so esiane asetra mu adesua ne asetra mu nkitahodi nti

Sɛnea Peyton Young kyerɛ no, akwan horow a ɛfoa nneyɛe a wɔahyɛ da ayɛ so no bi ne:[5]

  • Nkitahodi a wɔyɛ
  • Asetra mu nhyɛso
  • Nsɛnkyerɛnne a wɔde ma
  • Nsɛntitiriw a wɔde wɔn adwene si so

Nkyerɛkyerɛmu ne ahyɛde

[sesa]

Nkyerɛkyerɛmu gyinapɛn ahorow kyerɛ nea ɛba, bere a ahyɛde gyinapɛn ahorow kyerɛkyerɛ nea ɛsɛ sɛ ɛba mu. Cialdini, Reno, ne Kallgren (1990) kyerɛkyerɛ nkyerɛkyerɛmu gyinapɛn mu sɛ nkurɔfo adwene wɔ nea wɔtaa yɛ wɔ tebea pɔtee bi mu ho; ɛkyerɛ nea nnipa dodow no ara yɛ, a wɔmfa atemmu mma. Sɛ nhwɛso no, nwura a enni fam wɔ baabi a wɔde kar sisi no de nkyerɛkyerɛmu gyinapɛn a ɛne sɛ nnipa dodow no ara a wɔwɔ hɔ no ntow nwura ngu.[57][63] Nanso, Injunctive norm de kuw pene a wɔpene so wɔ suban pɔtee bi ho no kɔ; ɛkyerɛ sɛnea ɛsɛ sɛ ankorankoro bi yɛ n’ade.[57][63][64][65] Bere a kuw no muni bi hwɛ sɛ obi foforo refa nwura afi fam na ɔtow agu no, ebia obegye ahyɛde a ɛne sɛ ɛnsɛ sɛ ɔtow nwura gu no.

Nhyɛso ahorow a wɔde hyɛ mmara ne nea wɔbara

Prescriptive norms yɛ mmara a wɔankyerɛw a ɔmanfo te ase na wodi akyi na ɛkyerɛ nea ɛsɛ sɛ yɛyɛ.[66]Aseda a wobɛda no adi anaasɛ Aseda krataa a wobɛkyerɛw bere a obi de akyɛde ma wo no gyina hɔ ma gyinapɛn bi a wɔhyɛ ma wɔ Amerikafo amammerɛ mu. Nea ɛne eyi bɔ abira no, gyinapɛn ahorow a wɔbara no yɛ spectrum koro no ara awiei foforo; saa ara nso na ɛyɛ ɔmanfo mmara a wɔankyerɛw a ɛfa nea ɛnsɛ sɛ obi yɛ ho[66] Saa gyinapɛn ahorow yi betumi ayɛ soronko wɔ amammerɛ ahorow mu; bere a obi a wuhyiaa no nkyɛe a wobɛfew no ano wɔ n’afono so no yɛ nkyia a wogye tom wɔ Europa aman bi mu no, eyi nyɛ nea wogye tom, na enti egyina hɔ ma adeyɛ a wɔbara wɔ United States.

Subjective gyinapɛn ahorow

[sesa]

Gyidie a ɛfa baabi a afoforo a wɔho hia pɛ sɛ obi yɛ suban bi kodu no na ɛkyerɛ suban mu gyinapɛn.Sɛ wɔde ka adwene a ɔwɔ wɔ suban ho bom a, adwene mu gyinapɛn na ɛkyerɛ ankorankoro bi adwene[67] Wɔde adwene a ɛfa asetena mu nkɛntɛnso ho no gyina nhyɛso a nkurɔfo hu fi afoforo a wɔho hia hɔ sɛ wɔbɛyɛ, anaasɛ wɔrenyɛ, suban bi so[65] Asetra mu Adwene ne Nneyɛe Ho Ɔbenfo Icek Azjen kae sɛ wɔde ahoɔden a ɛwɔ gyinapɛn gyidi bi a wɔde ama mu na ɛkyerɛ suban mu gyinapɛn ahorow na wɔde ntease a ɛwɔ asetra mu nkyerɛkyerɛmu bi mu no kari bio, sɛnea wɔakyerɛ wɔ nsɛso a edidi so yi mu no: SN ∝ Σnimi , a (n) yɛ gyinapɛn gyidi ne ( m) ne nea ɛkanyan obi ma wodi gyidi a wɔaka ho asɛm no so[68]

Nkontaabu mu sɛnkyerɛnnede ahorow

[sesa]

Wɔ mfe du du kakraa a atwam no mu no, nsusuwiifo pii abɔ mmɔden sɛ wɔbɛkyerɛkyerɛ asetra mu gyinapɛn ahorow mu afi nsusuwii kwan so. Ɛdenam suban ho akwanhwɛ dodow a wɔde mfonini kyerɛ anaasɛ wɔbɔ mmɔden sɛ wɔbɛyɛ ntease a ɛwɔ akyi a wɔbata ho no so no, na nsusuwiifo wɔ anidaso sɛ wobetumi akyerɛ sɛ ebia ankorankoro bɛyɛ nea ɛne no hyia anaasɛ wɔrenhyia. Sanba tumi nhwɛso ne agodie ho nsusuwii ma sikasɛm mu adwene a ɛkɔ soro kakra wɔ gyinapɛn ahorow ho, a ɛkyerɛ sɛ ankorankoro betumi abu ɛka anaa mfaso a ɛwɔ nneyɛe mu aba a ebetumi aba akyi no ho akontaa. Wɔ saa nsusuwii nhyehyɛe ahorow yi ase no, paw a wɔpaw sɛ wobedi gyinapɛn ahorow so anaasɛ wobebu so no bɛyɛ gyinaesi a wɔahyɛ da ayɛ kɛse, a wotumi bu dodow

San fa tumi a ebetumi ayɛ nhwɛso

[sesa]

Wɔyɛɛ no ​​1960 mfeɛ no mu, sanba tumi nhwɛsoɔ no ma ɔkwan bi a wɔfa so yɛ kuw gyinapɛn ahodoɔ ho mfonini na wɔyɛ ho mfonini wɔ wɔn adwene mu. Wɔ daa coordinate plane no mu no, wɔayɛ suban dodow a wɔda no adi no ho mfonini wɔ X-axis no so (label a wɔ Mfonini 1 mu) bere a kuw no gye tom anaasɛ wɔpene so dodow no yɛ ho mfonini wɔ Y-axis no so (b wɔ Mfonini 1 mu).[45] Graf no gyina hɔ ma sanba anaa adepa a ebetumi afi mu aba ama ankorankoro bi wɔ suban ho gyinapɛn bi a wɔde ama no ho. Wɔ nsusuwii mu no, obi betumi ayɛ nsɛntitiriw bi ama suban biara a ɛkɔ soro sɛnea kuw no ani gye saa adeyɛ no ho anaasɛ wɔn ani nnye ho. Sɛ nhwɛso no, ebetumi aba sɛ wɔ afe a edi kan adesuafo a wɔawie sukuu mu no, asetra mu gyinapɛn ahorow a emu yɛ den wɔ hɔ a ɛfa kɔfe nkuruwa dodow a osuani bi nom da biara da ho. Sɛ sankɔhwɛ a ɛwɔ Mfonini 1 mu no da nhwɛsoɔ asetena mu gyinapɛn adi yie a, yɛbɛtumi ahunu sɛ sɛ obi nom kɔfe nkuruwa 0 da biara a, kuw no mpene so koraa. Kuw no mpene ɔmannifo biara a ɔnom kɔfe nkuruwa anan da biara no nneyɛe so; kuw no mpene so sɛ wɔbɛnom bɛboro nkuruwa ason, a nea ɛkyerɛ wɔ pene a wɔpene so a ɛsan kɔ fam sen zero no so. Sɛnea yehu wɔ nhwɛso yi mu no, sanba tumi nhwɛso no kyerɛ kuw pene dodow a obi betumi ahwɛ kwan wɔ suban biara a ɛkɔ soro no ho

  • Point of maximum sankɔhwɛ. Wɔfrɛ beae a y-coordinate kɛse wom no point of maximum return, efisɛ egyina hɔ ma suban dodow a kuw no ani gye ho kɛse.[45]Bere a c a ɛwɔ Mfonini 1 mu no rehyɛ sanba curve no agyirae wɔ ɔkwan a ɛkɔ akyiri so no, beae a wɔasi so dua wɔ n’atifi pɛɛ wɔ X=6, gyina hɔ ma beae a ɛsan ba kɛse. Sɛ yɛtrɛw yɛn atifi hɔ nhwɛso no mu a, mfaso a ɛsen biara a afe a edi kan adesuafo a wɔawie sukuu no benya no bɛyɛ kɔfe nkuruwa 6; wonya asetra mu pene a ɛsen biara esiane sɛ wɔnom nkuruwa pii saa pɛpɛɛpɛ nti. Nkuruwa pii anaa kakraa bi a wɔbɛnom no bɛtew pene a wɔpene so no so.
  • Range of suban a wotumi gyina ano. Label d gyina hɔ ma nneyɛe a wotumi gyina ano, anaa adeyɛ dodow a kuw no hu sɛ ɛyɛ nea wogye tom.[45] Ɛka beae pa a ɛwɔ curve no ase nyinaa ho. Wɔ Mfonini 1 mu no, suban a wotumi gyina ano no trɛw yɛ 3, efisɛ kuw no pene nneyɛe nyinaa so fi 4 kosi 7 ne 7-4=3. Sɛ yɛde yɛn kɔfe nhwɛso no kɔ bio a, yebetumi ahu sɛ mfe a edi kan no pene so sɛ wɔbɛnom kɔfe nkuruwa kakraa bi (ɛwɔ 4 ne 7 ntam); bɛboro nkuruwa 7 anaa nea ennu 4 bɛhwe ase wɔ nneyɛe a wotumi gyina ano no akyi. Norms betumi anya suban a ɛyɛ teateaa anaasɛ ɛtrɛw a wotumi gyina ano. Mpɛn pii no, suban a ɛyɛ teateaa kyerɛ suban a ɛde nsunsuanso kɛse ba kuw no so.[20]
  • Nneɛma a emu yɛ den. Sɛnea gyinapɛn no mu yɛ den no kyerɛ sɛnea kuw no dwen gyinapɛn no ho kɛse, anaasɛ kuw no nkɛntɛnso kɛse wɔ asiane mu sɛ wobedi nkonim anaasɛ wɔbɛhwere. Wɔde beaeɛ dodoɔ a wɔde curve no ahyɛ aseɛ nyinaa na ɛgyina hɔ ma wɔ sanba tumi nhwɛsoɔ mu, ɛmfa ho sɛ beaeɛ no yɛ papa anaa bɔne.[45] Norm a ahoɔden sua no rensakra koraa wɔ x-axis no ho; dodow a wɔpene so anaasɛ wɔmpene so wɔ nneyɛe a wɔde ama ho no bɛbɛn zero. Nanso, na gyinapɛn a emu yɛ den kɛse benya pene a wɔpene so kɛse. Wɔ Mfonini 1 mu no, ɛte sɛ nea sɛnea gyinapɛn no mu yɛ den no yɛ kɛse, efisɛ nneyɛe kakraa bi na ɛma wonya anibiannaso ho nkyerɛkyerɛmu.
  • Crystallization a wɔde yɛ nneɛma. Awiei koraa no, norm crystallization kyerɛ sɛnea nsonsonoe kɛse wɔ curve no mu; a wɔkyerɛ ase fi nsusuwii mu san kɔ gyinapɛn ankasa no so no, ɛkyerɛ sɛnea adwene a ɛwɔ kuw no mufo ntam wɔ pene a wɔpene so ma nneyɛe dodow bi ho.[45] Ebia ɛbɛyɛ sɛ emufo binom gye di sɛ gyinapɛn no yɛ ade titiriw wɔ kuw dwumadi mu sen afoforo. Ebia kuw bi gyinapɛn te sɛ kɔfe nkuruwa dodow a ɛsɛ sɛ wɔnom wɔ mfe a edi kan no mu no rennya ahwehwɛ a ɛba fam efisɛ ankorankoro pii wɔ gyidi ahorow wɔ caffeine dodow a ɛfata a ɛsɛ sɛ wɔnom ho; nea ɛne eyi bɔ abira no, ɛda adi sɛ gyinapɛn a ɛne sɛ wɔrenwia osuani foforo adwuma no benya ahwehwɛ a ɛkɔ soro, efisɛ nkurɔfo gye tom pɛpɛɛpɛ wɔ suban no a wontumi nnye ntom no so. Sɛ yɛkyerɛ kuw no nyinaa gyinapɛn no, sanba tumi nhwɛso a ɛwɔ Mfonini 1 mu no nkyerɛ ahwehwɛ no. Nanso, sanba tumi nhwɛsode a ɛyɛɛ ankorankoro data nsɛntitiriw a ɛkaa cumulative norm no ho no betumi akyerɛ nsonsonoe no na ama yɛatumi asusuw crystallization ho.

Agorudi ho nsusuwii

[sesa]

Nhyehyɛe foforo a wɔde di dwuma wɔ ɔkwan a ɛkɔ akyiri so a wobetumi de agyina hɔ ama asetra mu tebea a atwa gyinapɛn bi ho ahyia no mu nneɛma atitiriw ne agodie ho nsusuwii a wɔtaa di no. Nteaseɛ mu paw, agodie ho nsusuiɛ nkorabata bi, di abusuabɔ ne nneyɛeɛ a ɛwɔ asetena mu wɔ nteaseɛ mu adwumayɛfoɔ ntam[69] Adeyɛ bi ma obi nya mmara a ɛkyerɛ sɛnea ɛsɛ sɛ ɔyɛ n’ade. Nanso, sɛ mfaso wɔ so ma wɔn nkutoo a, obi a ɔwɔ ntease yɛ n’ade sɛnea mmara no kyerɛ. Yebetumi akyerɛkyerɛ tebea no mu sɛnea edidi so yi. Norm bi ma akwanhwɛ bi wɔ sɛnea nnipa afoforo yɛ wɔn ade wɔ tebea bi mu (macro). Obi yɛ n’ade yiye bere a wɔde akwanhwɛ (micro) no ama no. Sɛ gyinapɛn bi bɛgyina pintinn a, ɛsɛ sɛ nkurɔfo nneyɛe san hyehyɛ akwanhwɛ no a nsakrae biara nni mu (micro-macro feedback loop). Wonim akwanhwɛ a ɛteɛ a ɛte saa a ɛyɛ den a wɔahyehyɛ no sɛ Nash kari pɛ. Enti, ɛsɛ sɛ gyinapɛn a ɛyɛ pintinn yɛ Nash kari pɛ[70]Wɔ Nash kari pɛ mu no, odiyifo biako biara nni hɔ a ɔwɔ nkannyan pa biara a ɛbɛma ankorankoro twe ne ho afi adeyɛ pɔtee bi ho.[71] Wɔde asetena mu gyinapɛn ahorow bedi dwuma sɛ saa gyinapɛn pɔtee no nneyɛe hyia denam mmoa a Nash kari pɛ wɔ agoru ho nsusuwii akwan dodow no ara mu no so a[71]

Sɛ yɛhwɛ agodie ho nsusuwii a, nkyerɛkyerɛmu abien na ɛwɔ gyinapɛn ahorow pii a ɛwɔ wiase nyinaa no ho. Biako ne nsonsonoe a ɛwɔ agodie mu. Ebia wiase mmeae ahorow bɛma nneɛma a atwa yɛn ho ahyia a ɛsono emu biara na nnipa ahorow nso wɔ gyinapɛn ahorow, na ebetumi ama nsonsonoe aba agodie mu. Ɔfoforo no ne equilibrium selection a agoru no ankasa ntumi nkyerɛkyerɛ mu. Kari pɛ a wɔpaw no ne nhyehyɛe a wɔyɛ no wɔ abusuabɔ kɛse. Sɛ nhwɛsoɔ tiawa bi a, karka abu so wɔ wiase nyinaa, nanso wɔ aman bi mu no, nkurɔfoɔ ka kar wɔ nifa so na wɔ aman foforɔ so no, nnipa ka kar wɔ benkum so (hwɛ coordination game). Wɔahyɛ nhyehyɛe bi a wɔfrɛ no ntotoho ahyehyɛde nhwehwɛmu ho nyansa sɛ wɔmfa nni agoru no nsusuwii nhyehyɛe ntease a ɛfa asetra mu gyinapɛn ahorow ho dwuma.[69]

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