Abusua

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Wɔakyerɛw nsɛm yi wɔ Akuapem kasa mu

Abusua(About this soundpronounciation of "Abusua" ) (efi Latin kasa mu: familya) yɛ nnipa kuo a wɔne abusuafo bɔ abusua (denam awo a wogye tom so) anaasɛ abusuabɔ (denam aware anaa abusuabɔ foforo so). Abusua no atirimpɔ ne sɛ ɛbɛma emufo ne ɔmanfo yiyedi akɔ so. Sɛnea ɛbɛyɛ yiye no, mmusua de nsɛm a wotumi hyɛ ho nkɔm, nhyehyɛe, ne ahobammɔ ma bere a asɔremma no nyin na wosua sɛ wɔde wɔn ho bɛhyɛ mpɔtam hɔ no.[1] Abakɔsɛm mu no, nnipa akui dodoɔ no ara de abusua di dwuma sɛ beae titiriw a wɔde nawɔn ho bata wɔn ho, wɔtete wɔn, ne wɔn fekubɔ.[2][3


nnipa dodoɔ ho animdefo kyekyɛ abusua ahyehyɛde dodoɔ no ara mu sɛ matrifocal (ɛna ne ne mma), patrifocal (agya ne ne mma), conjugal (ɔyere, ne kunu, ne mma, a wɔsan frɛ no nuklea abusua), avuncular (ɔbarima, ne nuabea, . ne ne mma), anaasɛ wɔatrɛw mu (wɔ awofo ne mmofra akyi no, ebetumi ayɛ nananom, ne maame nuabanom, ne papa nua mma, anaa wɔn nuabanom).

Abusua anato ho asɛm no botae ne sɛ ɛbɛhwehwɛ abusua mmusua mu denam abakɔsɛm so. Abusua nso yɛ sikasɛm mu ade titiriw a wosua ho ade wɔ abusua sikasɛm mu. Wobetumi de asɛmfua "mmusua" adi dwuma wɔ kasakoa kwan so de ayɛ akuo a ɛka nnipa nyinaa ho kɛse te sɛ mpɔtam, ɔman, ne wiase nyinaa akuraa.

Asetenam[sesa]

c. C. Harris ka sɛ atɔe fam adwene a ɛfa abusua ho no yɛ nea emu nna hɔ na ɛne ofie no yɛ basaa, sɛnea ɛda adi wɔ nsɛm ahorow a wɔde asɛmfua no di dwuma wom no mu no.[12] Olivia Harris ka sɛ saa adwene a ɛyɛ basaa yi nyɛ akwanhyia, na mmom ɛkyerɛ abusua adwene a ɛne kapitalist, atɔe fam aman a wɔhyɛ asetra mu mmara a ɛka sɛ ɛsɛ sɛ nuklea abusua mufoɔ bom tra, na ɛnsɛ sɛ wɔn a wɔnyɛ abusuafo saa no bom tra; ɛmfa ho adwene ne mmara mu nhyɛso ahorow no, mmusua ɔha biara mu nkyem kɛseɛ no ne nuklea abusua su a eye no nhyia.[13]

Kɛseɛ

mmea awo dodoɔ nyinaa gu ahodoɔ wɔ ɔman biara mu, efi mmɔfra 6.76 a wɔwoo wɔn/ɔbea wɔ Niger kosi 0.81 a ɛba fam wɔ Singapore (ɛde besi afe 2015).[14] Awo dodoɔ no ara sua wɔ Europa Apuei Fam ne Europa Kesee Fam aman dodoɔ no ara mu, na ɛkɔ soro wɔ Afrika aman dodoɔ no ara a ɛwɔ Sahara anafo fam no mu.[14]

Wɔ amammerɛ ahodoɔ bi mu no, abusua kɛse a ɛna no pɛ no nya mmɔfra no de so nkɛntɛnso kosi mpanyin afe so.[15] Ɔwofo mma dodoɔ ne mma dodoɔ a awiei koraa no wɔn mma bɛwo no wɔ abusuabɔ kɛse.[16]

Ahodoɔ[sesa]

ɛwom sɛ atɔe famfo amammerɛ mu nnipa ho animdefo ne asetra ho animdefo a wodii kan no buu abusua ne abusuafo sɛ ɛne abusuabɔ ahodoɔ wɔ amansan nyinaa mu denam "mogya" so (a egyina nsusuwii ahorow a abu so wɔ wɔn ankasa amammerɛ ahorow mu so) nanso nhwehwɛmu a wɔyɛe akyiri yi[5] ada no adi sɛ aman pii mmom na wɔte abusua ase denam adwene a ɛne sɛ wɔbɛtra abom no so, aduan a wɔkyɛ (e.g. nufusu abusuafo) ne ɔhwɛ ne ntetee a wɔkyɛ. Asetra ho animdefo wɔ anigye titiriw wɔ abusua ahodoɔ no dwumadi ne ne gyinabea wɔ aman a wɔakyekyɛ mu (titiriw kapitalist) mu.[citation needed]

Sɛnea nhomanimfo Max Weber, Alan Macfarlane, Steven Ozment, Jack Goody ne Peter Laslett adwuma kyerɛ no, nsakrae kɛse a ɛde nnɛyi aware bae wɔ Atɔe Fam demokrase aman mu no “nyamesom-amammerɛ gyinapɛn nhyehyɛe a Yudasom mu nneɛma bi, tete Kristosom, de mae no na ɛmaa ɛyɛɛ den.” , Roma Katolekfo mmara ne Protestantfo Ɔsesɛw".[17]

Asetena mu nsɛm, abakɔsɛm ne nnipa ho nhwehwɛmu pii de ne ho hyɛ nsakrae yi ase, ne nsakrae a ɛba abusua no mu a ɛba bere kɔ so no ase. Levitan ka sɛ:


Abusua a awo ntoatoaso pii wom

lAbakɔsɛm mu no abusua su a na abu so sen biara ne nea nananom, awofo, ne mmofra bom tra mu sɛ kuo biako. Sɛ nhwɛso no, ofie no betumi ayɛ afu bi wuranom, wɔn mma a wɔanyinyin no mu bako (anaa nea ɛboro saa), abofra a wanyin no hokafo, ne abofra a wanyin no ankasa mma (wuranom no mmanana). Wɔmfa abusua kɛse no mufo nka abusua kuw yi ho. Ɛtɔ da bi a, wɔde awo ntoatoaso mmusua a "wɔahuruw" te sɛ nananom a wɔne wɔn mmanana te ka ho.[19]

wɔ U.S. no, nhyehyɛe yi so te wɔ Wiase Ko II akyi, na ɛkɔɔ fam wɔ afe1980 mu, bere a na nnipa aduowɔtwe biara mu biako te abusua a awo ntoatoaso pii wom mu wɔ U.S. no.[19] Nnipa dodoɔ no akɔ soro fi saa bere no, nnipa aduonum biara mu biako wɔ U.S. te abusua a awo ntoatoaso pii wom mu de besi afe 2016.[20] Nnipa dodoɔ mu nsakrae ne sikasɛm mu nsakrae a ɛbata Boomerang Awo Ntoatoaso no ho no fa bi na ɛma nkurɔfoɔ ani gye ho kɛse.[19]

Awoɔ ntoatoasoɔ ahodoɔ afie ntaa mma wɔ Canada, baabi a na nnipa bɛyɛ 6% a wɔte Canada no te awoɔ ntoatoasoɔ ahodoɔ mmusua mu kɔsi afe 2016, nanso na awoɔ ntoatoasoɔ ahodoɔ afie dodoɔ no rekɔ soro ntɛmntɛm, a ɛnam Aboriginefoɔ mmusua dodoɔ a ɛrekɔ soro, atubrafoɔ mmusua, ne adan a ɛdɔɔso nti ɛka a wɔbɔ wɔ mmeae bi.[21]


Aware (nuklea) abusua

wɔtaa de asɛmfua "nuklea abusua" di dwuma de kyerɛ aware mmusua. Abusua "aware" no fa ahokafo ne mmɔfra a wɔnwaree a wɔn mfe nkɔɔ anim nkutoo ho.[22][failed verification] Asetra ho animdefo binom[a?] kyerɛ nsonsonoe a ɛda awarefo mmusua ntam (a ɛde ne ho kakra wɔ awofo no abusuafo ne mmusua afoforo mu wɔ ɔkwan a ɛkɔ akyiri so no ho ) ne nuklea mmusua (a wɔne wɔn abusuafo kura abusuabɔ a emu yɛ den kakra).[23][24]

abusua nhyehyɛe afoforo – a (sɛ nhwɛso no) awofo a wɔadi afra, awofo a wonni ahokafo, ne ofie ayɔnkofa – afi ase rekasa atia nuklea abusua no su a ɛyɛ daa no.[25][26][27]

Awofo biako abusua

Abusua a ɔwofo biako na wɔwom no yɛ ɔwofo baako ne wɔn mma, baabi a ɔwofo no yɛ okunafo, wagyae aware (na ɔnsan nware bio), anaasɛ ɔnwaree da. Ebia ɔwofo no nkutoo na ɔwɔ mmofra no sohwɛ, anaasɛ awofo a wɔatetew mu no betumi ayɛ awofo a wɔbɛkyɛ ho nhyehyɛe a mmofra no kyekyɛ wɔn bere mu (ebia ɛyɛ pɛpɛɛpɛ) wɔ ɔwofo biako mmusua abien a ɛsono emu biara mu anaasɛ ɔwofo biako abusua biako ne abusua biako a wɔadi afra ntam. Sɛ wɔde toto mmofra a wɔhwɛ wɔn nkutoo ho a, mmofra honam fam, adwene ne asetra mu yiyedi betumi atu mpɔn denam awofo a wɔkyɛ wɔn ho nhyehyɛe ne mmofra a wobenya awofo baanu no nyinaa ho kwan kɛse so.[28][29] Ɔwofo biako mmusua dodow akɔ soro[bere bɛn?], na mmofra a wɔwɔ United States nyinaa mu bɛyɛ fã bɛtra awofo biako abusua mu wɔ bere bi mu ansa na wɔadi mfe 18.[30] Mmusua dodow no ara a awofo bako na wɔwom no, ɛna na odi wɔn anim, nanso mmusua a awofo bako na wɔwom a agyanom na wodi wɔn anim no dodoɔ renya nkɔanim.[31][32][33]

Matrifocal abusua


"Matrifocal" abusua no yɛ ɛna ne ne mma.[34] Mpɛn pii no, saa mmofra yi ne n’asefo a wɔwoo wɔn, ɛwom sɛ ɛkame ayɛ sɛ mmofra a wɔfa wɔn sɛ wɔn mma no kɔ so wɔ ɔman biara mu de. Saa abusua yi taa ba wɔ baabi a mmea wɔ nneɛma a wɔn ankasa betumi atete wɔn mma, anaasɛ mmarima tumi tu mmirika sen mmea. Sɛ nkyerɛase no, "abusua anaa ofie kuw bi yɛ matrifocal bere a ɛfa ɔbea ne ne mma ho no. Wɔ eyi mu no, saa mmofra yi agya (wɔn) wɔ kuo no asetra mu bere ne bere mu na wogye dibea a ɛto so abien." Mmofra no maame nyɛ mmɔfra no agyanom no mu baako yere ankasa."[35] Wɔde edin no, matrifocal, too gua wɔ Guiana nanso wɔkyerɛ ase wɔ ɔkwan soronko so wɔ aman afoforo so. Wɔ Nayar mmusua fam no, abusua no wɔ ɔbarima no sɛ "mfinimfini" anaa abusua no ti, anaasɛ ɛyɛ mpena/agya/onua, sen sɛ ɛbɛyɛ ɛna.[34]

asɛmfua "abusua a wɔatrɛw mu" nso abu so, titiriw wɔ United States. Saa asɛmfua yi wɔ ntease ahorow abien a ɛsono emu biara:

Ɛyɛ adwuma sɛ asɛmfua a ɛne "consanguinal abusua" (consanguine kyerɛ "mogya koro no ara mu").

Wɔ aman a awarefo abusua di so mu no, ɛkyerɛ "abusuafo" (abusuafo a wɔyɛ ahomaso a wɔde wɔn ho hyɛ mu a ɛtrɛw kɔ akyiri sen ofie kuw no) a wɔnyɛ awarefo abusua no mufo.

Saa ahorow yi kyerɛ nhyehyɛe ahorow a ɛyɛ papa anaasɛ ɛyɛ mmara a wohu wɔ aman pɔtee bi mu. Ɔman biara bɛda nsakrae bi adi wɔ mmusua a wɔahyehyɛ ne wɔn adwene ankasa mu.[citation needed]

Abakɔsɛm mu no, na mmusua a wɔatrɛw mu ne abusua kuw titiriw wɔ Katolekfo amammerɛ ne aman mu (te sɛ Europa Kesee Fam ne Latin Amerika),[36] ne Asia, Mfinimfini Apuei ne Apuei Fam Ortodɔks aman mu.

Abusua a wɔpa wo

Asɛmfua abusua a wɔpa wo, a ɛtɔ mmere bi a wɔsan frɛ no "abusua a wɔapa wo" anaa "abusua a wɔahu" no abu so wɔ LGBTfo mu, asraafo a wɔadi ako, ankorankoro a wɔayɛ wɔn ayayade, ne wɔn a wɔne wɔn awofo "awofo" nni nkitaho biara. Ɛkyerɛ nnipa kuw a wɔwɔ ankorankoro bi asetra mu a ɛma abusua dwumadi a ɛtaa ba sɛ mmoa nhyehyɛe no di ho dwuma. Asɛmfua no ma nsonsonoe da "abusua a wofi mu" (abusua a wɔwom anaasɛ nea wɔtete nnipa wom) ne wɔn a wɔde nsi fa saa dwuma a eye no ntam.[37]

Abusua a wɔpa wo no betumi ayɛ abusua a wofi mu no mufo bi anaa wɔn nyinaa anaasɛ wɔrenka ho. Saa abusua yi nyɛ abusua a edi abusua nhyehyɛe "a ɛyɛ daa" akyi te sɛ agya, ɛna, ne mma a wɔwɔ. Eyi yɛ abusua yɛ nnipa kuw a wɔde wɔn ho to wɔn ho wɔn ho so te sɛ nea abusua a wofi mu bɛyɛ.[38] Saa nsɛmfua yi fi nokwasɛm a ɛyɛ sɛ LGBT ankorankoro pii, sɛ wopue a, wohyia pow anaa aniwu fi mmusua a wɔtetee wɔn wom no hɔ.[39] Ankorankoro a wɔwɔ anammɔn 12 no mu nso de asɛmfua abusua a wɔpaw no di dwuma, a wɔde "abusua" abusuabɔ a emu yɛ den ba denam ahotɔ nhyehyɛe no so.

Sɛ́ abusua nhyehyɛe no, mmusua a wɔpa wo wɔn no hyia nsɛm a ɛyɛ soronko. Sɛ mmara kwan so ahobammɔ nni hɔ a, mmusua a wɔpaw no betumi apere bere a aduruyɛ, nhomasua anaa aban ahyehyɛde ahorow ntumi nhu sɛ ɛyɛ mmara kwan so de no.[39] Sɛ abusua a wofi mu no apow abusua a wɔapa wo wɔn no mufo a, wobetumi adi awerɛhoɔ a wɔde besi ananmu, abufu, adehwere, anaasɛ dadwen a wɔde bɛbata wɔn abusua foforo no ho.[39]

Abusua a wɔadi afra

asɛmfua abusua a wɔadi afra anaa mpena abusua no kyerɛ mmusua a awofo a wɔadi afra wom: awofo biako anaa wɔn baanu nyinaa san waree, de kan abusua no mma ba abusua foforo no mu.[40] Afei nso wɔ asetra ho adesua mu, titri wɔ asetra mu adwene ho ɔbenfo Michael Lamb nhoma ahoro mu no,[41] atetesɛm abusua no kyerɛ "abusua a ɛwɔ mfinimfini a wɔwɔ agya a onya abodoo ne ɛna a ɔtra fie, a wɔn aware wɔn ho wɔn ho na wɔtete wɔn awosu mufo." mmofra," na ɛnyɛ amanne kwan so de ma nea ɛka mmara yi ho. Mprempren U.S. afie dodow no ara nyɛ amanne wɔ saa nkyerɛase yi ase.[42] Wɔn a wɔkasa tia asɛmfua "amammerɛ abusua" no kyerɛ sɛ wɔ amammerɛ dodoɔ no ara mu ne mmere dodoɔ no ara mu no, abusua a wɔatrɛw mu nhwɛso no na abu so kɛse, ɛnyɛ nuklea abusua no,[43] ɛwom sɛ anya atetesɛm a ɛware wɔ England[44] sen de Europa ne Asia mmeae afoforo a ɛde atubrafo pii baa Amerika no. Nuklea abusua no bɛyɛɛ ɔkwan a abu so sen biara wɔ U.S. wɔ 1960 ne 1970 mfe no mu.[45]

Wɔ nkitahodi nhyehyɛe ahodoɔ a ɛwɔ mmusua mu ho no, gyidi ahodoɔ bi wɔ abusua no mu a ɛkyerɛ sɛnea ɛsɛ sɛ emufo di nkitaho na wɔne wɔn di nkitaho. Saa abusua nkitahodi nhyehyɛe ahorow yi fi gyidi ahorow abien a ɛhyɛ ase mu. Baako ne nkɔmmɔbɔ kwankyerɛ (baabi a wobu hia a nkitahodi ho hia no sɛ ɛsom bo kodu) ne abien, kwankyerɛ a ɛfa nneɛma a ɛne ne ho hyia ho (baabi a ɛsɛ sɛ mmusua si nsɛdi anaa nsonsonoe a ɛfa suban, gyidi, ne gyinapɛn ahodoɔ ho so dua kodu).[46]

Mmusua a wɔde afrafra yɛ nea emu yɛ den, efi mmusua a wɔyɛ mpena so kosi mmusua a wɔbom tra so (ankorankoro bi a ɔne ahwɛfo a wɔnwaree a wɔne mpena anaa anuanom fã te). Bere a ɛnyɛ soronko koraa wɔ mpena mmusua ho no, mmusua a wɔbom tra no de adwene mu nkɛntɛnso a abu so ba mmerante ne mmabaa so.[47] Anka mmabun binom bɛtaa "nsɛmmɔnedi nneyɛe," na wɔahyia ɔhaw ahorow wɔ sukuu mu fi adesua mu mmɔdenbɔ a ɛso tew so kosi nneyɛe a ɛde ɔhaw ba a ɛkɔ soro so. Ɛne nhwehwɛmu afoforo a wɔyɛe wɔ mpena mmusua akwan horow so a ebinom nyaa abusua mu osuahu, nanso afoforo nni abusuabɔ no hyia. Nkate mu a wɔtwe wɔn ho fi mmusua a wɔyɛ mpena mufo ho no boa ma saa adwenem naayɛ yi ba, na ɛma nhyɛso a ebia mmusua yi de besi hɔ no kɔ anim.[48] Nsakrae a efi abusua dedaw mu kɔ abusua foforo a ɛhyɛ mmusua a wɔadi afra ase no nso bɛyɛ ɔhaw efisɛ ebia dwumadi ahorow a bere bi na wɔyɛ wɔ abusua dedaw no mu no renkɔ so yiye wɔ abusua foforo no mu mma mmabun.

Abusua a wɔware ɔyere bako

Abusua a wɔware ɔyere biako no gyina mmara kwan so anaa asetra mu ɔyere biako a wɔware so. Wɔ saa tebea yi mu no, ankorankoro bi wɔ ɔhokafo biako pɛ (a ɔyɛ aban de) wɔ wɔn nkwa nna mu anaa bere biara mu (i.e. serial monogamy).[50] Eyi kyerɛ sɛ ebia obi rennya awarefo ahorow pii a mmara ma ho kwan bere koro mu, efisɛ eyi taa yɛ nea aware abien ho mmara bara, (adeyɛ a ɛne sɛ obi ne obi bɛware bere a ɔda so ara ware ɔfoforo wɔ mmara kwan so[51]) wɔ tumidi ahodoɔ a hwehwɛ sɛ wɔware ɔyere bako.

Beaeɛ a menye firiɛ[sesa]